I am really getting tired of people complaining about data breaches, the lack of security and how it is all the fault of security initiatives such as the PCI DSS, the QSA involved or the carelessness of the organization that was breached. It is not that QSAs, the PCI DSS and the like do not have a responsibility in all of this, but that responsibility seems to be over allocated to QSAs and the PCI DSS rather than focused on the real cause. According to a recent Verizon Business Services report, the real cause is usually human error.
What are worse are the comments from credit card company executives that seem to portray the PCI standards as ‘THE’ standards for securing cardholder data. What these people fail to either understand or acknowledge is that even if every security measure in the PCI DSS were put in place and worked exactly as they should, breaches would still occur. Albeit at a much slower pace and with less information released. Why? Because, security is not perfect. Never was and never will be.
But, but, but …
If you have told people that your security systems are absolutely, positively protecting your organization’s information assets and that nothing can go wrong, shame on you. You need to better manage people’s expectations regarding security. This expectation by people that security is perfect is something that needs to be debunked immediately. Yes, the security measures put in place are protecting the organization’s information assets, BUT … Those measures are not perfect, never will be perfect and at some point will break down resulting in some sort of incident. Your job is to make sure that your security measures ensure that any incident that occurs is as small as possible.
But, but, but …
No ‘buts’ about it. Any security professional knows that security only reduces or minimizes risks; it does not remove them all. Yes, some risks may be eliminated when proper security practices are implemented. Nevertheless, for the most part, some security risks will always remain, regardless of the security measures put in place. Proper management of these remaining security risks should minimize the risks as much as possible. However, minimized risk does not imply that the threat or vulnerability cannot be leveraged. Minimized risk means that controls are in place to make the likelihood of a compromise using any remaining vulnerability as low as possible. As a result, security programs such as the PCI DSS are focused on keeping all but the most dedicated attackers at bay. It is what I call the “99-1 rule.” Security focuses on protecting your organization from 99% of attackers. However, the remaining 1% of attackers will cost you too much time, resources and effort to keep them out. Your hope is to at least be notified when that 1% attacks.
A prime example of security not being perfect is the banking industry. Banks have invested heavily in a variety of security measures including vaults, silent alarms, video recording, die packs and other deterrents. Vaults have definitely reduced the amount of money lost in a robbery. However, one would argue that silent alarms, video recording and die packs have not had a significant impact on the number of bank robberies. Where silent alarms, video recording and die packs come into play is in reducing the number of successful robberies.
That is what the PCI DSS and similar security standards are all about. They were developed to make the successful breach as difficult a thing to accomplish as possible.
However, there are people out there that are dedicated to breaching security for whatever reason. Whether or not you are in their sights is why you rely on the control triad and defense in depth. The idea being that this will give you a “heads up” if your organization is being attacked. But be careful and do not become complacent. Dedicated attackers are like hunters. They research their prey so that they know about the defenses of their target and they develop sophisticated plans to defeat those defenses or at least keep them at bay. These are people skilled in their craft. They take a part-time job as part of the cleaning staff at a building where their prey is located so that they can scope out their quarry and determine where the weaknesses are located. If they need other expertise, either they will acquire that expertise through training or they will team with someone that has that expertise. In the end, if there is a way, these people will find it and exploit it.
If you want to see these concepts in action, watch any of the Ocean’s 11, 12 or 13 movies. They may be campy but the planning concepts used in these movies mimics just how an attacker goes about planning to obtain your databases or other information. And if you do not believe that such people or threats really exist, read my post regarding the Advanced Persistent Threat (APT).
The key to remember is that you are never going to remove all of the risk, you are only going to manage it. With proper controls in place, threats can be managed and the risk to your assets minimized. However, do not let your guard down because that is when attackers will take advantage.