If you are not familiar with Advanced Persistent Threat or APT, you better get yourself up to speed as soon as possible. This is a threat that will likely catch you flat footed if you are not addressing it. As a member of InfraGard I was made aware of APT a year or so ago, but it was a great report recently produced by MANDIANT Corporation that really brought this threat into perspective. I cannot stress how urgently you should go to their Web site and request a copy of their latest M-TRENDS report. It is covers this topic in much more detail and is very enlightening.
APT is not your usual attack. As the name implies, it is a very skilled long-term siege on your network and computer systems. The attack is taken slowly and carefully so as not to trigger any alerts at the target. These are teams of very skilled professionals, not hactivists, script kiddies or even organized crime groups. As far as anyone can figure out, these professionals are state sponsored based on the scale and logistics of their operations. Their “job”, so to speak, is to compromise networks and systems for the purpose of gaining access to information. What makes APT particularly insidious is that they set things up so that they can keep coming back. What makes APT even more effective is that regardless of the countermeasures put in place to thwart attacks; these people have the resources and knowledge to work around those countermeasures. In effect, APT brings my adage to life, “If someone wants to get you bad enough, they will do whatever it takes to make that happen regardless of what you do to prevent it.”
While I know that you are likely saying to yourself that your organization would not be on the APT radar, think again. If you have a presence on the Internet whether that is ecommerce, a static Web site or even an email server, you are a potential target of APT. And while you may not have information they want, you may have a business partner that they wish to compromise and they will use your network to get a way in to your business partner. This all goes back to a post I made a while back regarding the fact that we are all interconnected these days, one network to another and so on. So while APT may not be able to directly get into a target, they may be able to compromise a network attached to the target and get in that way. As a result, we all need to take precautions to ensure we have each other’s backs.
The M-TRENDS report goes into great detail on the methods used, so I will not bore you here with those details. But, some of the take aways I got from the report are as follows.
- These are very sophisticated attacks and require a level of sophistication in information security that most organizations do not practice. As a result, if you intend to stay out of APT’s clutches, you are going to have to raise the bar on your information security program significantly. Raising the bar does not necessarily mean spending more money on the latest and greatest security technologies. On the contrary. APT wants targets that think security technology is the only way to secure an organization. It is organizations that rely heavily on technology and ignore or belittle security training that they prey upon. This means that you need to focus your efforts on things like training and being more diligent on log reviews and alert follow up. The requirements in PCI DSS requirement 10 go a long way in assisting you with finding anomalous network traffic and the like.
- APT relies on heavy reconnaissance of networks and the gathering of information to be used in their social engineering attacks. There initial forays into your network will likely be as innocuous as port and vulnerability scans as well as spidering all of your public Web pages and LinkedIn, Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, etc. While you can do very little about the port and vulnerability scanning, you can do quite a bit about spidering. Now is the time to reconsider the information you post publicly on your Web sites. It is also time to start managing the information that is ending up out on social networking sites. A just published study in the UK indicated that information regarding a number of top secret projects for the military could be found on various social engineering Web sites. If that is the case for really hush-hush projects, imagine the sorts of information that could be garnered about your own organization. Remember, it is this sort of information gathering that have caused most of the break-ins to celebrities’ and politicians’ email and social sites. In addition, all of this ‘personal’ information is just a quick Advanced Google search away.
- With social engineering as one of the big keys to APT, it is time to get serious about training of your personnel. APT use a number of targeted social engineering techniques such as ‘spear phishing’ to gain ways into an organization. If you still think social engineering training is useless, here is the biggest reason I can give you to get serious about training. It does not have to be boring, but it does need to convey a sense of urgency and the extreme risk presented. Just having people read the M-TRENDS report and then discussing it would likely go a long way to motivating people to think before they do something they will regret later.
- The malware used by APT is very sophisticated and is constructed in such a way as to thwart most current anti-virus and anti-malware solutions. In addition, APT malware is regularly updated to continue to blind these solutions. As a result, relying on these solutions is not feasible. You will need other measures in place to ensure your security such as critical file monitoring, file signature hashing and similar measures. I am not suggesting that you take these measures on all you systems, but you probably should consider it on systems that contain critical data or have access to critical data. There are a number of PCI DSS requirements that can help you with this, but the biggest is requirement 10 again followed by requirement 11.5.
- You will likely need to make your network segmentation even more granular. As I stated in the last bullet, you do not want to have to put these countermeasures on every system you have. Unfortunately, unless you further tweak your network segmentation to keep sensitive systems and non-sensitive systems apart, you are not going to keep APT at bay. Granularity does not mean more VLANs or segments; it more likely means more or tighter ACLs to control access to information.
- To hide their activities, APT uses encrypted data streams between their malware and their command and control systems. As a result, traditional network traffic monitoring will not help unless you are monitoring for “unknown” encrypted traffic. Again monitoring can detect this, but you need to be monitoring for encrypted data traffic that is not “normal.” This can also be controlled by controlling outbound traffic to unknown destinations.
- Finally, a lot of these attacks are from known locations such as China. If your organization is not conducting business outside of the United States, why is your firewall configured to accept traffic from anywhere on the Internet? For that matter, why does your firewall allow outbound connections to foreign countries? All of this is configurable if you take the time to enable it in your firewalls, but most organizations never go to that length. Now you have a big reason why to start restricting traffic in and out of your network like you should have been doing all along.
The PCI DSS has a number of controls in it that, if properly implemented and monitored, would go a long way in making APT’s activities more difficult. However, that is the rub. Unfortunately, most organizations do not execute the PCI DSS consistently and therefore they can end up being owned by APT. And just complying with the PCI DSS is not necessarily going far enough, so you need to go beyond it to ensure your network’s security.
Always remember security is not and never will be perfect. Your goal then is to make the life of APT as miserable as possible so when they come calling, they will likely go somewhere else to get what they want. However, if you are their ultimate target, then you need to be sharp as they will do whatever it takes to get in.
Update: According to Jerry Dixon, director of analysis at Team Cymru, APT is no different than any other attack.