Archive for March, 2020

31
Mar
20

Surprise! PCI Largely Ignores Disaster Recovery

As a lot of people are finding out when they rolled out work from home (WFH) for COVID-19, it turned out that compliance with the PCI DSS was not in place and in some cases, not even possible.  If the PCI Dream Team session last week is any example, I think a lot of QSAs got calls and emails from their clients asking what the Hell had happened?

What we are all experiencing is a shortcoming of the PCI DSS and a point that has been discussed off and on since it came into existence.  The problem is that the PCI DSS does not worry about business continuity (BCP) or disaster recovery (DR) unless there is cardholder data (CHD) or sensitive authentication data (SAD) involved which typically only occurs when that data exists at hot/warm recovery sites.  If the CHD/SAD is only there when recovery is occurring, then those locations are out of scope.

Unfortunately, the COVID-19 event is not your normal “disaster”.  With the invocation of WFH, production data centers and offices were still fully operational which is typically the concern of BCP/DR.  What changed was that the government enacted stay at home or shelter in place orders and the recovery site became an employee’s home, not your expected recovery location.  Worse, since WFH would not involve CHD/SAD until it was invoked, QSAs had no reason to assess any plans for such recovery because they were not in-scope until activated.

That said, a lot of QSAs (myself included) usually did have a discussion with clients that, while their BCP/DR plans were not in-scope, clients should occasionally assess those plans to make sure that, when invoked, the plan maintained PCI compliance.  Because when the BCP/DR was invoked, whatever was done had to be PCI compliant the moment it was used.

And there is the rub in all of this.  There is no grace period with PCI compliance because of the invocation of BCP/DR.  You are expected to be 100% PCI compliant regardless.

There are a number of lessons learned due to the COVID-19 disaster.

  • BCP/DR will need to be updated for pandemic incidents including WFH capabilities. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), pandemics are not going to go away, so the ability to continue operations remotely is going to have to be part of an organization’s recovery options.
  • WFH capabilities will have to be incorporated into normal production capabilities. This effort will need to address PCI compliance as well as HIPAA, CCPA, GDPR and any other relevant security and privacy programs your organization may have to comply with.  I have had a number of organizations enact such capabilities, policies and procedures for various parts of their operations over the years due to changing work requirements of their personnel as WFH offers a number of flexible advantages for retaining employees.
  • Implement virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) to provide office as well as remote working capabilities. This can also potentially allow WFH to use an employee’s BYOD as long as they are not required to be PCI compliant.  Use of VDI allows the use of thin clients and Chromebooks to be used as workstations making security of those workstations a bit easier as well as reducing the cost.
  • Implement P2PE or end-to-end encryption (E2EE) solutions for the entry of CHD/SAD into applications. There are a number of USB and Bluetooth options available from the various point of interaction (POI) vendors such as Verifone and Ingenico as well as other third-party application vendors.
  • Softphones create a larger scope by bringing the workstation they connect to into full scope for PCI compliance. The number of requirements that need to be assessed can be reduced by using VDI and connecting the softphone to the VDI through the workstation.  Making such a connection though is not “plug and play”, so be prepared to have to work a lot with the VDI vendor to make that connection work.  But do not be surprised if it does not provide a reliable and/or clear connection, so make sure you are prepared to have to place the full workstation into scope to have an acceptable working solution.
  • If you are expecting to use The Cloud for your VDI or application, make sure that you conduct appropriate capacity planning so that you are not caught without the ability to expand that solution due to WFH. A lot of organizations have found with the COVID-19 event that their Cloud implementation did not scale as they thought it would.  It turned out that Cloud providers have capacity limitations just like in-house data centers.  While you are not using that capacity all of the time, you need to reserve it for those instances when you need it.  While not free, that excess capacity can be reserved for such events as COVID-19 so that when you need it, it is available.
23
Mar
20

Work From Home PCI Considerations

The PCI Guru got a question regarding PCI compliance for service providers in today’s emergency work from home (WFH) environment from a blog reader and it got The PCI Dream Team thinking about how does that work?  So, thanks to David Mundhenk of Herjavec Group, Art “Coop” Cooper of NuArx, Ben Rothke of Tapad and Jeff Hall of Online Business Systems for contributing to this list.

Ben & David wrote a piece on the topic last week, and the Dream Team has a webinar on Dealing with PCI DSS Compliance During the COVID-19 Crisis on March 25.

Thanks to the Coronavirus crisis, organizations are now scrambling to get their employees working from home.  This is presenting a whole new series of challenges to their compliance, technology and information security teams as these employees are now operating in a potentially less secure and definitely less private environment.

Home networks are going to be less controlled and secure.  Making matters worse is that most home networks today are Wi-Fi based, not wired, so data is flowing over untrusted networks because everyone in the house knows the Wi-Fi password (assuming there is one and it is not the default).

Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)

The biggest issue we are encountering is those organizations that need to rely on workstations owned by employees because they do not have company-owned and configured equipment to provide.  I have seen many a Tweet and LinkedIn post discussing the shortages of equipment for work from home and what options do they have.  The problem stems from most business continuity plans focusing on events that affect a business location or a community, not the entire country.  As a result, the idea of a pandemic forcing people to work from home was not thought of as a realistic threat.

As a result, bring your own device (BYOD) is the only answer in the near term to getting people working from home.  In discussions not only amongst the Dream Team but with other QSAs, there just do not seem to be any good answers for using BYOD and maintaining PCI compliance.  None of us can come up with ways to maintain compliance with BYOD because there are just too many factors involved from anti-virus (many varieties), limited or non-existent central monitoring and management, vulnerability scanning, penetration testing, patching, differing hardware, differing operating systems and a host of other issues that make it impossible to verify compliance let alone maintain compliance.

One potential option to reduce risk and gain better control with BYOD is using virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) solutions such as Citrix Workspace, VMware Horizon or Windows Remote Desktop Services.  If you have that infrastructure in place, then we would recommend expanding it for WFH remote access.  If you do not have that infrastructure, you may be able to use Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud or similar cloud environments to stand it up quickly.  That would allow you to reduce the risk of the BYOD being used but there still would be the risk of memory scraping and keyboard logging on the BYOD that must be managed.

That is not to say that you should not use BYOD as you need to keep your business running.  What it does mean is that you need to have a serious talk to your acquirer to determine how to handle this situation, what the risks are to your solution and then communicate the results of that discussion formally to your QSA.  You may even want to have your QSA on those calls with your acquirer to assist.  In these desperate times, I doubt that any bank is going to say you cannot stay in business as long as you can provide some controls and do your best to manage the risk.

We view BYOD though as a short term solution and that a longer-term solution needs to be developed as current estimates seem to indicate that the crisis will likely extend past the original estimate of four weeks.  That longer-term solution would involve acquiring the necessary hardware and software to implement a managed, secured and controlled environment that can be tested to ensure PCI compliance.

Company Provided Hardware and Software

For those companies that do have the equipment to send home with their employees, this is not a complete list, but a set of bullet points of ideas for how to address PCI compliance in our “new normal”.

  • The easiest topic is remote access. The PCI DSS explicitly calls out that a secure VPN (i.e., encrypted) with multi-factor authentication (MFA) for users to obtain access to the service provider network (8.3.2.a).  But where things can go sideways is complying with 8.3.1.a which requires MFA for non-console access to systems/devices in the cardholder data environment (CDE).  It goes awry because people think that the first MFA covers the MFA into the CDE and it does not.  The reason is that 8.3.1.a was designed to stop the phishing of Administrators to gain access to the cardholder data environment (CDE).  To stop that, you need additional MFA to access the CDE.  That does not mean a separate MFA solution (which would be ideal), but it does mean enforcing a delay in the single MFA so that the same MFA code cannot be used to access the internal network and then also the CDE.  A lot of organizations implement the delay in their remote logon script by invoking a timer delay that expires after the longest time a code can be active (usually 30 seconds).
  • A secure VPN is necessary to remove the home network from scope. Ideally, the VPN should be required to always be in use so that the workstation cannot get to the internet other than over the VPN.  For those that do allow the home network and internet to be accessible, you will need to ensure that the firewall on the workstation appropriately protects the workstation as well as implementing a host intrusion detection solution (HIDS).
  • VDI is also a solution because it allows for the use of thin-client and devices such as Chromebooks to be used to connect. Most VDI solutions also embed a secure remote connection via HTTPS or similar secure connectivity solutions.  If not then you will need to use a secure VPN as documented above.  However, even a thin client runs the risk of memory scraping and keyboard logging so you need to manage those risks.
  • Review all automated workflows to make sure that they are producing the necessary audit trails that will provide evidence for you PCI assessment of what is happening. Where this becomes problematic is when the workflows are developed only for PCI compliance and with the changes for remote operations, those workflows are not picking up new users, devices and other changes that were made to allow for remote work.
  • People that typically work together but now are remote will start using Microsoft Teams, Slack, Skype and other collaboration platforms to communicate and that may include sharing cardholder data (CHD) or sensitive authentication data (SAD) at times. You will need to train and quickly remediate situations if CHD/SAD enters these applications as well as periodically reminding these people that the use of these communication systems for transmitting SAD/CHD is not allowed.  If possible, enable data loss prevention (DLP) or similar capabilities to identify and then redact SAD/CHD in any of these communications.
  • If you are pushing out call center operations, remember that softphones will bring the workstation they connect into scope for PCI compliance because the workstation is now directly connected to the CDE which is, of course, the VoIP telephone system. That means an increase in scope and that those workstations need to be hardened, managed, logged and controlled for PCI compliance.  Call center operations may also require additional network segmentation to be put in place to ensure the size of your CDE does not exponentially grow.
  • While not entirely PCI related but needs to be noted are some other remote call center operation issues to consider that could make compliance with contractual obligations regarding privacy and confidentiality of data discussed or processed by the operator. You may need to supply operators with shredders, printers, additional monitors and other equipment to ensure privacy and productivity.  You may also have to instruct people to locate their work area to a bedroom or other room where a door can isolate the operator while they work so that family members do not come into contact with information or documents they should not view.
  • Ensure that you have ways to document changes happening, their review and approval. A lot of organizations have paper forms, Excel spreadsheets, email forms, etc. they use that sometimes can get lost in people’s inboxes, archives and folders or just lost, period.  You need to make sure that the change management system will work in the remote mode and that change evidence, reviews and approvals are maintained.
  • Logging should not be an issue unless your organization was not logging the VPN or other devices because they were not in scope for PCI compliance but now are in scope. So, you need to review your new workflows to ensure all devices and systems are logging to your SIEM or logging solution so that you comply with PCI requirement 10.
  • Encryption key management could become an issue particularly if your process does not support remote management. This can happen with some hardware security modules (HSM) and systems that require that the key custodians physically input their seed values into the device’s console.  So, going on-site may be required for encryption key changes and that may require formal approval from local authorities to occur.

These are the top of mind ideas that we were able to come up with for this discussion.  However, every environment is different so not everything discussed may be possible for your organization to use and maintain compliance.  We would recommend you work with a QSA to make sure that what you are attempting to do is not creating risks you are unwilling to accept or if you cannot manage appropriately.

We wish all of you the best of luck during this crisis.  We will get through this, but it will likely take some ingenuity in how that happens.

Also, be aware that the Council and the Card Brands are working on this topic as well and I expect more from them in the coming weeks.

Stay safe and healthy.

 

Other WFH resources:

CISA Coronavirus Guidance – https://www.cisa.gov/coronavirus

NIST Teleworking Guidance – https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-46/rev-2/final

SANS Work From Home Webcast – https://www.sans.org/webcasts/archive/2020

20
Mar
20

Special PCI Dream Team COVID-19 Session

On Wednesday, March 25, at 1800 UTC (2PM ET) the PCI Dream Team of Ben Rothke, David Mundhenk, Art Cooper and Jeff Hall will be on BrightTalk to discuss the impact on PCI compliance of the current COVID-19 crisis.

This should be a tough session as a lot of organizations are facing difficult decisions as they try to implement work from home (WFH) as well as maintain PCI compliance.  Thanks to the crisis, there are constraints that ordinarily would not be a problem such as a difficulty in obtaining hardware and remotely connecting a large workforce.

To register for the session, go here.

As usual, if you are unable to attend, please send your questions ahead of the session to pcidreamteam AT gmail DOT com.

We look forward to your questions and hope we can provide some help.

Thank you to all of you that attended. We had a lot of great questions from the attendees. We apologize for not being able to get to all of the questions, but I intend to follow up on a few of those in future blog posts.

11
Mar
20

Remote Assessment Guidance Issued

The PCI SSC has issued guidance in response to the Covid-19 pandemic and conducting on-site fieldwork for PCI assessments.  Their blog post can be found here.

Given that governments around the world are saying that this pandemic could be ongoing until the summer, I would suspect that the Council will have to issue better guidance than what is in their latest blog post.  So I would expect more to come on this topic in the coming weeks.

03/19/2020 UPDATES: The Council has set up a Web page to track any Covid-19 updates. Also, remote assessments guidance has been provided and are allowed given the current pandemic conditions. Key is to discuss a remote assessment with the banks and/or brands involved.

08
Mar
20

The End Is NEIR – More Information And Clarity

Let us try this again, shall we?

I heard recently about a new PCI acronym – NEIR – from a variety of people.  It seems to be that being the PCI Guru, everyone just assumes that I knew what NEIR was about.  I was totally stumped.  I had no idea what it stood for and various internet search engines were worthless, so I contacted people in my network to get educated.

After a number of communications with a variety of contacts, I was able to find out that this acronym is a new service offering from one of the larger QSACs in the United States.  NEIR it turns out stands for Non-listed Encryption Implementation Review.  According to the people I communicated, this review results in a Report of Functionality (ROF).

After posting the original post, I was contacted by the QSAC regarding issues with that original post.  After a number of email exchanges, we realized where we needed clarifications, where there was confusion, and what needed to be corrected.  Based on what I was told by the people I communicated and what the QSAC explained, there is obviously a lot of confusion regarding NEIR.  The QSAC is going back to clarify a few items on their side and I rewrote this post to reflect my new understanding of NEIR.

The first piece of confusion was that NEIR was created by the PCI SSC.  It was not, it was created by the QSAC who then ran it past some people at the Council to make sure they were not doing something wrong.  Why my sources at the Council did not remember it is likely because it did not go against any practices expected by the Council and therefore was forgettable in their minds.  However, in using the word “vetted” in the QSAC’s description of NEIR, it seems to have created an impression with some people that NEIR was somehow officially approved by the Council which was not accurate. The QSAC is addressing that issue going forward.

The second piece of confusion was that NEIR is mandated for PCI compliance.  Where this confusion I am sure comes from is based on what NEIR addresses.  NEIR is a process to assess the implementation of an end-to-end encryption (E2EE) payment solution that has not gone through the P2PE validation process for scope reduction.

As a reminder, if a merchant has an E2EE solution and thus desires P2PE scope reduction for their assessment, then the implementation of that E2EE solution must be performed to ensure it actually protects the payment information and reduces scope.  The results are then shared with the merchant’s processor/bank and the processor/bank must give written approval to the QSA for P2PE scope reduction.

That assessment process is mandatory if a merchant expects P2PE scope reduction.  Every QSA that encounters an E2EE solution must go through this sort of assessment process and then gets explicit approval for P2PE scope reduction from the merchant’s processors and/or banks.  If not performed, then P2PE scope reduction is not allowed for the assessment.

With NEIR, the QSAC has codified that E2EE assessment process for consistency resulting in the ROF for the processor/bank to review and formally approve the scope reduction.  I posted about this sort of process a while back which the QSAC’s representative referenced in our communications.

However, as it unfortunately happens with these sorts of things, communications get bolloxed up and what prospects are told versus what they understand is not one and the same.  This is what I heard all about as I tried to figure out what was going on.  People were inconsistent in what NEIR was about and how it worked and since I did not get any materials from those people due to NDAs, I could not confirm or deny what they were saying was accurate.  The only consistency was that it was required for PCI compliance and that it was the Council that required it.  It took discussions with the QSAC to get to the bottom of all of this and clarify the situation.

So, there you have it.  Now you know about NEIR.  So, if you encounter it, you know what you are dealing with and what it addresses.  Nothing new, just one QSAC’s take on a process to assess E2EE payment solutions for P2PE scope reduction.




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