Archive for the 'Attestation Of Compliance' Category

21
May
19

An Inadvertent Service Provider

A discussion came up on the last PCI Dream Team session regarding situations at universities that have bookstores and cafeterias operated by third parties on their networks and those vendors processing payment card transactions.  QSAs encounter this situation not only at universities and colleges, but also with hospitals, health clinics and large corporations.

The Situation

As organizations focus on customer and employee perks, QSAs encounter third parties operating business outlets within a variety of organizations.  These businesses include coffee shops, convenience stores, dry cleaners, bookstores, restaurants, cafeterias, parking ramps, travel agencies, pharmacies, health clubs and a whole host of other businesses.  Of course, all of these third parties accept payment cards for their services and need a way to process those cards.  Organizations offering these perks have existing wired and wireless infrastructure that get leveraged to connect these third parties to the internet and their payment processors.  Thus, bringing that network and everything attached to that network into scope for PCI compliance.

As a result, this situation creates a PCI compliance problem because the organization is now a service provider as well as a merchant.  The organization thought by outsourcing these businesses it was reducing PCI scope not increasing scope.  But scope increases because since they are now considered a service provider, they must provide each of these third parties with a Service Provider Attestation Of Compliance (AOC) for that network connectivity.

But it can and does get worse.  I have encountered situations where the outsourcing organization provides help desk, firewalls and other support services for these third parties, further complicating their PCI compliance responsibilities.

What Do You Do? Option 1 – Get Out Of Scope

There are some ways to get out of scope, but these can be complex and/or expensive.

The first way to get out of scope is to force all of your third parties to get their own network connectivity from their own internet service provider (ISP).  The problem with this is that an ISP will likely have to run wire into your facilities to make those connections.  That can be disruptive as well as expensive and complicated due to locations within existing buildings.  And what if each business wants their own ISP because of a contract relationship?  That will mean multiple ISPs tearing up your facilities.  Not necessarily the best situation.

The most extreme solution to get out of scope is for the outsourcing organization to implement carrier equipment and become a “carrier” to these third parties.  I have had a few clients go down this road, but it is not cheap and can also be more trouble than it is worth.  However, for a university or large hospital/clinic complex with lots of third parties, this solution can actually be a cheaper route to implement and operate.

But the beauty of these solutions is that your organization is totally out of scope so there are no service provider PCI assessment requirements.

What Do You Do? Option 2 – Reduce Scope

There are also a couple of ways to reduce scope.  But reducing scope requires at a minimum the creation of a Service Provider SAQ D and AOC.

The quickest and easiest way to reduce scope is that the outsourcing organization can implement end-to-end encryption between the third party’s connection and the internet.  However, this adds the requirements in section 4 to the assessment as well as keeps the endpoints in scope for PCI compliance.

Another option to reduce scope is to require these third parties to implement encryption from their operation to anyone outside of the outsourcing organization.  While this seems simple, it usually never is simple.  Never mind the fact that if that encryption is ever stopped (most times without your knowledge), the outsourcing organization’s network is back in scope.  Typically, when this gets brought up as a solution, a lot of the third parties balk or say they do not know how to encrypt their connections.  Never mind the fact of the complexity of proving that the outsourcing organization does not have encryption keys and that every third party connection is encrypted becomes problematic.  It ends up more trouble than it is worth.

The only good news about reduced scope is that you only need to fill out a Service Provider SAQ D and AOC because you have no idea the transaction volumes being processed by any of these third parties.  That said though, it is additional paperwork that needs to be filled out annually and given to all your third parties.

Heaven help you though if you offer firewall, help desk and other support services in addition to connectivity.  Those just complicate your compliance and reporting efforts.  All I can say is, if you can stop offering those services, stop.  If you cannot stop those services, then be prepared to document and report on the PCI compliance of each of those services.  That can be done in a single assessment, but the AOC must cover each of those services provided individually in a separate section 2g.

Never mind the fact that if some of those services offered give your organization insight into the number of transactions processed by your third parties such as you provide payment processing under one or more of your merchant identifiers, you may end up having to conduct a Service Provider Report On Compliance (ROC) because the transaction volume exceeds one of the card brands’ annual service provider transaction volumes.

There you have it on third parties and their payments on your network.

21
Nov
18

Requirement 12.8.2

I got a comment a while back about contracts and PCI compliance.  The two requirements that are relevant in this discuss are 12.8.2 and 12.9.  Requirement 12.8.2 is for all organizations (merchants and service providers) that are being assessed under the PCI DSS.  Requirement 12.9 is only for service providers.

As usual, the clarifications surrounding these requirements were all provided verbally over the years at various PCI Community Meeting presentations and Q&A sessions.  But the overall gist of these requirements can be readily determined.  It just takes a little bit of effort and looking at more than just the PCI DSS.

Requirement 12.8.2 states:

“Maintain a written agreement that includes an acknowledgement that the service providers are responsible for the security of cardholder data the service providers possess or otherwise store, process or transmit on behalf of the customer, or to the extent that they could impact the security of the customer’s cardholder data environment.

Note: The exact wording of an acknowledgement will depend on the agreement between the two parties, the details of the service being provided, and the responsibilities assigned to each party. The acknowledgement does not have to include the exact wording provided in this requirement.”

The Guidance provided for 12.8.2 states:

“The acknowledgement of the service providers evidences their commitment to maintaining proper security of cardholder data that it obtains from its clients. The extent to which the service provider is responsible for the security of cardholder data will depend on the particular service and the agreement between the provider and assessed entity.

In conjunction with Requirement 12.9, this requirement is intended to promote a consistent level of understanding between parties about their applicable PCI DSS responsibilities. For example, the agreement may include the applicable PCI DSS requirements to be maintained as part of the provided service.”

If things are still not clear enough, it helps to look at the ROC Reporting Template to get clarification.  The tests being conducted for a given requirement usually clear up any confusion regarding what is being expected.  There is only one test for 12.8.2 and it states:

“Describe how written agreements for each service provider were observed to include an acknowledgement by service providers that they will maintain all applicable PCI DSS requirements to the extent the service provider handles, has access to, or otherwise stores, processes, or transmits the customer’s cardholder data or sensitive authentication data, or manages the customer’s cardholder data environment on behalf of a customer.”

The first thing to notice in all of these discussions is that nothing in the PCI DSS states that any organization is required to work with a PCI compliant third party.  None of the requirements in 12.8 specify that an Attestation Of Compliance (AOC) be provided.  A lot of QSAs will argue that requirement 12.8.4 requires it, but if you read the test:

“Describe how it was observed that the entity maintains a program to monitor its service providers’ PCI DSS compliance status at least annually.”

There is nothing in that test that explicitly mandates that an AOC is required to monitor third parties.  Granted an AOC is the easiest way to monitor service provider compliance, but there is nothing explicitly calling it out in this test.

So where does this “requirement” originate?  It comes from the merchant agreements with the card brands, specifically Visa and MasterCard.  They require that their merchants only work with third parties that are PCI compliant and can prove that compliance with a Service Provider AOC.  This is why it is important to read and understand the brands’ merchant agreements and their own security programs.  There are a number of key “requirements” that come from those documents that are just as important as what is in the PCI DSS.  So, read them as well as all of the PCI documents.

Getting back to the PCI DSS, what the Council wants QSAs and ISAs to look for in contracts, master service agreements, addendums and any other legal documents that describe the parties’ legal relationship is some sort of acknowledgement between all parties that they will abide by the PCI DSS and ensure that sensitive authentication data (SAD) and cardholder data (CHD) is kept secure.

Where a lot of QSAs/ISAs go wrong is demanding that the words “PCI DSS”, “PCI standards” or other explicit acknowledgement of “PCI” something to appear somewhere in those documents.  The Council has stated a number of times that explicitly using “PCI DSS”, “PCI standards” or “PCI” anything is not required.  It would be great if such documents did, but a lot of legal documents do not because they either predate the PCI DSS or lawyers argue it is not necessary.  That is what led to the Note in both requirements.  The key is the last sentence which explicitly states:

“The acknowledgement does not have to include the exact wording provided in this requirement.”

It is this sentence that the Council always points to and states that this is why explicit statements of PCI or any other direct reference to PCI is not necessary nor required.  My advice is, when in doubt, ask your client’s legal counsel for their legal interpretation of the legal agreements and whether they fell it covers the PCI responsibilities of the parties involved.

That will lead you to the fact that a lot of legal agreements reference the PCI DSS and PCI standards indirectly through language that obligates the parties to follow and comply with “regulatory or other legal requirements”.  The reason this language works is because “other legal requirements” will drag in the card brand legal agreements for taking and processing card payments.  Every card brand has legal agreements for merchants and service providers that explicitly call out that the customer of the brand will maintain PCI compliance for all relevant PCI standards.

Where this discussion becomes problematic is with service providers that do not directly process, store or transmit SAD/CHD such as managed service providers and the like that can affect the security of payments.  That is because they are not directly under the card brands’ legal agreements, so their contracts while using the same “regulatory or other legal requirements” will not necessarily be referencing PCI compliance because they are indirectly involved.  It is in these cases that I rely on getting a PCI AOC from the service provider which then provides the additional assurance that the service provider understands that they need to be PCI compliant.

It is when I cannot obtain an AOC from a service provider that I then explain to my client that this service provider’s environment needs to be assessed as part of their assessment.  Either that or my client needs to find a new PCI compliant service provider.

What a QSA/ISA needs to be looking for in a service provider’s AOC is a couple of things (actually, there are a lot of things, but these are the most important).

First, you need to ensure that the services provided to your client have all been covered by the service provider’s assessment.  Section 2a of the AOC documents the services covered and not covered.  The most common problem found with section 2a is that one or more services used by an organization were not assessed.  If services were not assessed, then you need to notify the service provider and develop a plan of how to handle this situation.

The next thing to review is the locations that were part of the assessment.  It still amazes me the number of AOCs I review where a client’s data center or processing center was not part of the assessment.  It gets worse when you bring this to the attention of the service provider and they get put out or worse, they argue with you over the fact that they must review every facility where a service is conducted.  I am sorry, the PCI SCC and the card brands are the ones that make the rules, I am just the poor assessor that must enforce and live by them.

Finally, you need to review section 2g for all of the services assessed (if they were assessed from section 2a).  Section 2g are a matrix of the 12 PCI DSS sections that explains who is responsible for the various PCI DSS requirements.  From this matrix an organization is to construct their PCI program to fit the controls that they need to implement to be PCI compliant for this service.

There should be a section 2g for every individual service assessed, but in instances where PCI coverage is the same for different services (e.g., SaaS application hosting), you can combine services in section 2g.  However, this is where problems usually are found.  My favorite example of such a problem is the day I found data center co-location and call center services listed in the same matrix.  I am sorry, but those services have very little similarity particularly in PCI controls.  When you encounter this situation, it is usually indicative of a QSAC that does not understand how to deal with service providers and is cutting corners to get the ROC and AOC out the door.  In addition, it also likely indicates a service provider that is just “checking a box” for PCI compliance to placate customers.  But worse is when that service provider is listed on the Visa or MasterCard service provider lists (it is rare, but I have seen it) which then indicates that the brands are also not doing their due diligence in their review of the AOC.

Hopefully, you now better understand requirement 12.8.2.  In a future post I will discuss requirement 12.9.

04
Jul
18

Can I Use SSAE 18 SOC 2 Reports? Part 1

This is a common question that QSAs encounter from clients.  The client has an SSAE 18 Controls at a Service Organization (SOC) report from one of their service providers and they want to know if they can use it to satisfy any or all of the requirements in 12.8, 12.9 and 12.11 related to vendor management?

The biggest caveat in this discussion is that the PCI SSC does not sanction the use of any report other than a PCI Attestation Of Compliance (AOC) and/or a PCI Report On Compliance (ROC) in addition to any other PCI reports.  The Council has repeatedly stated that if a QSA chooses to rely on an SSAE 18 SOC 2 report (or any other compliance report for that matter), the QSAC and their client accepts the risk if the SSAE 18 SOC 2 does not cover what the QSA claims it covers and therefore relies upon it for fulfilling PCI ROC requirements.  As a result, most QSAs will not accept an SSAE 18 SOC 2 report (or any other non-PCI compliance reports) for any reason.

For those of us “recovering” certified public accountant (CPA) types that have conducted SSAE18 audits, we know how to read and interpret these reports.  As a result, when we are asked about SSAE 18 SOC 2 reports being relevant, our answer is that, “It depends on what the SOC 2 covers and how it was tested.”

Before we get too deep into this discussion though, we need to define the terminology surrounding this topic.  The first thing is that SSAE 18 replaced SSAE 16 as of 2017 even though nothing else appears to have changed.  The next key thing anyone needs to know about SSAE 18 is that there are three reports that can come from this reporting series: SOC 1, SOC 2 and SOC 3.

The first, SOC 1, is for financial auditors only.  It used to be called a SAS 70 years ago.  It is a report focused on financial controls that an external auditor needs to ensure that the financial numbers coming from the third party can be relied upon in their annual audit of their client.  Yes, these SOC 1 reports can cover security controls, but that is only in regard to financial systems, not necessarily the third party’s entire environment.  In addition, the control coverage is typically not as deep as required for PCI compliance.  The bottom line is that any reliance on a SOC 1 report outside of financial systems should never be assumed.

I am going to cover the SOC 3 report next because it covers all of the security domains.  The SOC 3 report (also sometimes referred to as the ‘SysTrust’ report) covers the following domains:

  • Organization and Management – The criteria relevant to how the organization is structured and the processes the organization has implemented to manage and support people within its operating units.
  • Communications – The criteria relevant to how the organization communicates its policies, processes, procedures, commitments, and requirements to authorized users and other parties of the system and the obligations of those parties and users to the effective operation of the system.
  • Risk Management and Design and Implementation of Controls – The criteria relevant to how the entity (i) identifies potential risks that would affect the entity’s ability to achieve its objectives, (ii) analyzes those risks, (iii) develops responses to those risks including the design and implementation of controls and other risk mitigating actions, and (iv) conducts ongoing monitoring of risks and the risk management process.
  • Monitoring of Controls – The criteria relevant to how the entity monitors the system, including the suitability, and design and operating effectiveness of the controls, and takes action to address deficiencies identified.
  • Logical and Physical Access Controls – The criteria relevant to how the organization restricts logical and physical access to the system, provides and removes that access, and prevents unauthorized access to meet the criteria for the principle(s) addressed in the engagement.
  • System Operations – The criteria relevant to how the organization manages the execution of system procedures and detects and mitigates processing deviations, including logical and physical security deviations, to meet the objective(s) of the principle(s) addressed in the engagement.
  • Change Management – The criteria relevant to how the organization identifies the need for changes to the system, makes the changes following a controlled change management process, and prevents unauthorized changes from being made to meet the criteria for the principle(s) addressed in the engagement.

There are also some additional considerations that are related to Confidentiality specified in the Trust Services Principals and Criteria (TSP), but those are not required to be covered in the SOC 3 report.

Finally, there is the SOC 2 report.  The SOC 2 report uses the same TSP as the SOC 3 but with a twist.  The third party can select any or all of the seven domains to be assessed.  Think of it as a “cafeteria style” assessment.  With the SOC 2, the AICPA does not require that all domains be covered (as with the SOC 3), the assessed entity can select only those domains they wish audited.  As a result, a third party could select only the ‘Organization and Management’ domain to be assessed and nothing else in their SOC 2 report.  Therefore, just because you have a SOC 2 does not mean it covers the domains necessary for your PCI assessment.  Like the SOC 3, in addition to the seven domains, the SOC 2 can also cover none, any or all of the additional considerations documented in the TSP.

Within each of these SOC reports there is a Type I and a Type II report.  A Type I report is basically worthless from a reliance perspective because no testing of the controls is ever performed.  With a Type I report, the auditor is signing off on the fact that the third party has controls defined and formally documented.  But without testing, there really is no point to this report.  Yet every now and then, I encounter a Type I report that an organization has relied upon for years.

The only report worth anything is a Type II report which tests the control environment to ensure that the controls are functioning as designed.  So, when you get that SOC 2 report, you need to make sure you have a Type II report where testing has been performed by the auditor.  Even then though, the report might not be as useful as you might think.

I Have A SOC 2 Type II Report From A Service Provider

While you want to read the whole report in detail, when I am pressed for time and cannot read it in its entirety, here is where I focus so that I can get a quick view of what I have.  Some CPA firms provide a one-page Executive Summary that gives the reader a quick overview of the report, provides the timeframe the report covers, opinion, exceptions and other useful information.  But that is not required by the AICPA so you cannot always rely on such an overview being in every report you receive.  When they are available, they can help you focus your quick review efforts even better.

The first thing to do is to read the auditor’s opinion which should be the first section of the report.  It is in the form of a letter on the auditor’s letterhead and signed by the auditing firm.  The opinion the auditor provides will be either:

  • Unqualified – no material control weaknesses or failures were identified.
  • Qualified – some material control weaknesses or failures were identified.
  • Adverse – significant control weaknesses or failures were identified.

An unqualified opinion is what all organizations desire and what most reports document.  But do not be fooled by an unqualified opinion.  There still could have been control weaknesses or failures identified but they did not rise to the level of being considered “material”.  I have seen some unqualified reports with control weaknesses that I would have considered material as their auditor, so you might still want to contact the organization to get clarification on any weaknesses identified.

A report with a qualified opinion is not the end of the world, but that will all depend upon what control weaknesses or failures created the qualification.  Someone misusing their access can be minor compared to not performing backups of servers for months.  As a result, you need to read each control weakness to determine the criticality of the control failure as well as review management’s responses to how they addressed or will address the failure.  Again, you may find yourself contacting the organization to clarify weaknesses documented.

In my experience, reports with an adverse opinion never get issued to the public.  Management sees all of the control failures and weaknesses and then embarks on the long arduous task of cleaning up their control environment.

The next section to look at is the one labeled ‘Information Provided by Independent Service Auditor’ or similar.  This is the section that will contain the testing results and will define which of the domains were covered as well as the timeframe the report covers.  Most organizations issue SOC reports annually, so you always want to make sure that you have the most current report.  If the coverage end date is getting within three months of a year old or more, you should contact the third party and ask them when the next report will be issued.  They should inform you that the new report is in progress and give you an estimated date the report will be issued.  If they do not give you a succinct answer, I would be concerned.

You need to go through this section looking at a couple of things.  The first is to determine which of the domains were covered.  While documenting those domains, you also need to review the testing that was performed and at what level of detail those tests were conducted.  For example, it is not unusual to see tests for change control cover five random changes but not test those changes for having appropriate documentation, backout instructions and testing, only that the changes were approved.  At some point you will need to read this section carefully to determine what, if anything, will cover the testing required by the PCI DSS.  But a quick perusal will usually give you an idea of what you are likely going to get out of the SOC 2 for PCI compliance, if you are going to get anything at all.

This leads to the next section of the report you should read.  The last section of all SOC reports is usually titled ‘Supplemental Information Provided By [Organization Name]’.  This section contains information that was provided by the entity being audited but is not covered by the auditor’s opinion.  There can be all sorts of information presented here but the important point to remember is that the auditor did not test or assess the accuracy of that information.  So, you need to take any information provided in this section with a bit of skepticism.

It is in the Supplemental Information section that you want to look for a sub-section titled ‘Management’s Response to Control Exceptions’ or similar.  Even when an organization has an unqualified opinion, there can still be items listed in this section.  If there are items listed, you want to carefully read what those items were and how management addressed or corrected the condition.  If you find any control issues and responses that concern you, you should contact the entity and get those discussed so that you are comfortable with the situation.  If you cannot get comfortable with the situation, then you may want to consider additional controls at your end to compensate for the control weakness with the third party.

In the next postpost I will take you through a more thorough review of the SOC report.

24
Mar
18

When A Client Refuses To Provide Evidence

As a QSA there are occasions when a client tells you that you cannot be allowed to have copies of evidence.  The most common occurrence is with firewall and intrusion detection/prevention configurations.  But there are odd instances as well for things like software development lifecycle documentation and information security policies where it makes no sense.

As a “recovering” penetration tester, I get some of these requests.  I once got into a financial institution because their network engineer wanted advice on their firewall configuration and posted the configuration on a forum for people to provide advice.  So, people are right to be concerned.  That said, qualified security assessor companies (QSAC) are required to provide a secured storage area for storing client evidence, so it’s not like evidence is stored just anywhere.

To be clear, a QSA is required to obtain evidence that supports their assessment of the PCI DSS requirements.  The reason is for the PCI SSC’s assessor quality management (AQM) process.  The Council has the right to review not only the redacted Report On Compliance (ROC) and Attestation Of Compliance (AOC), but also the evidence that supports the ROC.  This has always been the case under the AQM process, but it has only been recently that the Council has started exercising that right and reviewing samples of evidence.

Regardless of all of these precautions and requirements, there are still those times when a client refuses to provide copies of the evidence.  What is a QSA to do?

The Council has provided QSAs with an option when this situation happens, it sounds simple, but is not always as simple as it appears.

When a client refuses the QSA to leave with the necessary evidence, the QSA must then require the client to securely store the evidence reviewed for a maximum of three years and agree to make that evidence available if the Council pulls their ROC for review under the QSAC’s AQM.

The key to this solution is that they client must store exactly what the QSA reviewed for a period of three years.  In the case of a firewall configuration, the client needs to create a human readable file (i.e., text, PDF, screen shots, etc.) and then store that file securely either on their network, a CD/DVD or even a USB thumb drive.  A lot of clients create an encrypted archive for storing this information which is a very good idea.  I have heard of a few situations where the client misplaced the archive resulting in a finding against the QSAC for not being able to provide the evidence to the PCI SSC for review.

This evidence solution is likely outside of the original contract with the QSA.  As a result, the QSA will have to make an addendum to their original agreement to cover this situation.  Expect a bit of legal work to come up with getting such an agreement and getting the client to agree with it.

But suppose the client refuses the conditions of the addendum.  What then?

This is where the client’s acquiring bank comes into the picture.  A client’s acquiring bank is required to arbitrate such disputes between QSAs and their client.  Whatever the acquiring bank decides, the QSA needs to make sure that they get the decision in writing (e.g., email, letter, etc.) and put that decision in with the rest of their evidence.  A QSA should also write up a brief memo to provide the background of the situation so that anyone going back and reviewing the evidence understands what happened and therefore has some context as to why the bank issued their decision.

There you have it.  Another situation addressed.

26
Aug
17

PCI Compliance And Financial Institutions

I remember being at one of the early PCI Community Meetings and someone from the PCI SSC promised that the PCI DSS would be periodically updated to reflect changing business conditions as well as changing threats.  Here we are more than a decade later, and we have version 3.2 of the DSS, but it has been changed more for changes in threats and very little for business.

Their rationale was that they wanted to minimize the number of compensating control worksheets (CCW) that would be needed for the majority of organizations.  This was in response to v1 of the PCI DSS that required that data encryption keys change annually.  Most large merchants who were participating organizations (PO) complained that it was taking six months to a year or more to encrypt their transaction databases and files.  Requiring annual key changes would leave those databases and files at risk because they would always be in a state of perpetual decryption/encryption.  As a result, almost everyone had a CCW for that requirement.  So, the Council changed the requirement to require the changing of encryption keys when they were believed to be compromised or if one or more persons who know the keys leave the company or change roles.

The reason I bring this up is that I have been dealing with financial institutions and their PCI compliance issues for the last few years.  If there is anything more frustrating, it is trying to apply a standard written for merchants to organizations that are not merchants.  It seems like every time I turn around; a requirement needs a CCW, particularly when concerning requirement 3.4.

I am sure the Council will point to requirement 3.2 as their token change that took into account issuers.  But that does nothing for the other requirements that financial institutions struggle.  The biggest reason a lot of the PCI requirements are a struggle is that financial institutions are in the business of; surprise, surprise; processing, storing and transmitting cardholder data.  That IS their business.  3.2 was a great change for issuers, but a lot of the rest of the PCI DSS is a huge pain for a financial institution without a lot of CCWs and the blessings of the requisite card brand(s).

Let us look at a few requirements where CCWs are needed when assessing an FI.

3.4 Render PAN unreadable anywhere it is stored (including on portable digital media, backup media, and in logs) – this can be very problematic for financial institutions.  The reason is that while they can encrypt or tokenize the data, they also need to decrypt/detokenize it as well.  In a lot of cases, they need to do those operations quickly and very often.  It is not that the FIs do not want to protect the information, it is just that they have some unique issues in meeting PCI requirements.

The best example of this situation is debit cards.  Debit cards must be tied to a demand deposit account (DDA) such as a checking or savings account.  That means somewhere there must be a mapping of the debit card into the core application system.  But to process transactions from the card networks when customers use their cards, the PAN must be decrypted/de-tokenized so that the payment can be approved or declined.  This decryption/de-tokenization process needs to meet a timing standard, so adding to the processing time is usually not an option.  As a result, it is not unusual to find that the PAN to DDA mapping file is not encrypted or tokenized.

6.4.3 Production data (live PANs) are not used for testing or development – when part of your business is all about processing, storing and transmitting sensitive authentication data (SAD) and/or cardholder data (CHD), using a few card brand test accounts like a merchant would use for testing is not going to work.  Particularly when you are testing with one of the card brands to certify your application.  In those instances, the FI and brands are going to demand the use of a large and varied set of PANs to ensure that systems are functioning properly.  The only way to do that is with live data from production.

3.2.1 Do not store the full contents of any track (from the magnetic stripe located on the back of a card, equivalent data contained on a chip, or elsewhere) after authorization

3.2.2 Do not store the card verification code or value (three-digit or four-digit number printed on the front or back of a payment card used to verify card-not-present transactions) after authorization

3.2.3 Do not store the personal identification number (PIN) or the encrypted PIN block after authorization.  – requirement 3.2 addresses that issuers that have a business reason to retain sensitive authentication data (SAD) can retain it.  However, 3.2.1, 3.2.2 and 3.2.3 say that all of this data cannot be stored right after authorization. These requirements then go on to say the QSA must inspect incoming transaction data, log data, databases, etc.  Well, guess what?  The incoming transaction data always has SAD in it of some form because the FI has to authorize the transaction.  As I said earlier, databases can have it because of the speed required to authorize.  This is the FIs’ business, yet the standard does not recognize this fact.

The bottom line is that the PCI DSS does not reflect the realities of financial institutions.  As a result, FIs require numerous CCWs to meet the PCI DSS requirements.  As I stated at the beginning, the Council promised that they would address such issues to make CCWs the exception not the rule.  Well, here we are, and in the FI world CCWs are commonplace.  And as we move forward, it will be FIs that will be the focus of the standard, not merchants.  Merchants will very soon be out of the payment card data business altogether with the exception of their POI.  So, it only makes sense to adapt the PCI DSS to securing FIs.

We have separate PCI DSS and AOC documents for service providers.  Maybe we need separate such documents in addition to revised requirements for financial institutions?

Seems like a good discussion topic to bring up at the upcoming Community Meeting.

15
Dec
16

The Council Speaks On A Number Of Topics

The Council had a Webinar session for QSAs and ISAs on Thursday, December 15. It was a great session, but at only an hour, there were a lot of questions that went unanswered.  The following were the more notable discussion topics.

Not Tested

The Council got the message and they are working on new wording for the AOCs as well as some guidance for “Not Tested” and how it can be used and not impact PCI compliance.  They expect to have something issued in the first quarter of 2017.

Network Segmentation and Scoping

This was a very hot topic and drew a lot of questions and some useful answers as well as generating a slew of new questions.

We got a definition of “purpose-built controls”.  There really is not any change here in what the Council has told QSAs and ISAs in the past regarding segmentation.  The bottom line is that “purpose-built controls” are those controls that segment one network from another network.  That can be firewall rules, access control lists (ACL) or any other controls that control or limit the communications from one network to another network.  I posed a question regarding encryption such as TLS and IPSec as still being a valid segmentation control, but it did not get answered.  I am assuming that it still is a valid control given the Council’s statement that nothing has changed, but until we have explicit confirmation, that still is an assumption, not a fact.

The Council answered a number of questions regarding whether or not in-scope devices can be on the same network segment as out of scope devices can co-exist.  As usual, we go the “it depends” discussion.  The bottom line is that it depends on the threat presented by the out of scope devices to those in-scope.  If an organization has lax security controls over all of their networks and devices, then I would be hesitant to allow out of scope devices to be on the same network segment as in-scope devices.

One of the most amazing discussions on this topic was an answer given regarding whether or not a device that has only an outbound connection from the cardholder data environment (CDE) can be considered out of scope.  Under the Open PCI Scoping Toolkit, this would be categorized as a 2C system.  The Council started out with their stock answer of “it depends” and then clarified that answer.  The answer given was that while the system would be in scope because it is connected to the CDE, what requirements it would need to comply with would depend on the risk presented by the system to the CDE.  This seemed to give organizations an opportunity to argue a minimization of requirements.  I am sure this will result in a lot of arguments between QSAs, ISAs and their assessees in the future.

As a funny aside, the Council mentioned the “three hop rule” and then feigned ignorance as to where it came from.  As I pointed out in my post, it was from the 2014 Community Meeting in Orlando.

Not-Listed Encryption Solutions

This guidance is a train wreck and just seems to keep getting worse.  The Council gave a lot of answers to questions, but it just seemed like they were digging an ever deeper hole, not filling it in.

The biggest news is that the Non-Listed Encrypted Solution Assessment (NESA) document should be available for review in the first quarter of 2017.

The next biggest news was the Council reconfirming that this is only guidance/recommendations and not some new process that is mandatory.  They even made sure to tell everyone attending that QSAs are NOT to hold up an organization’s ROC/SAQ over not having a NESA for their E2EE solution.  So if an E2EE solution does not have a NESA, then the fallback based on a lack of guidance from the Council is to preform whatever procedures that the merchant’s acquiring bank recommends.

The purpose of this Information Supplement the Council stated was to provide QSAs, merchants, service providers and banks with the Council’s acceptable way to deal with assessing E2EE solutions.  While on its face this statement and rationale makes sense, it does not make sense from the standpoint that the organizations driving the E2EE solutions are the banks and processors that have partnered with the E2EE solution providers.  Given that the banks and processors are the same organizations driving PCI compliance of the merchants that consume those E2EE solutions it seems rather odd that they would be questioning what is acceptable for PCI compliance of their approved E2EE solutions.

At the end of the day, it just seems that this NESA process is a solution looking for a problem and that the only problem the process really solves is getting more E2EE solutions to just finish the NESA and validate as a P2PE solution.

Until the banks and processors get behind the NESA process, I see this effort as dead on arrival.

So it sounds like it will be a busy first quarter for the Council.

The Council stated that the slide deck for this session will be posted to the Portal sometime after the first of the year.

18
Jul
16

Third Party Service Provider PCI Compliance

This has recently become a very hot topic as more and more businesses get serious about controlling their supply chains not only for PCI but for information security in general.  It has only taken three years after the Target breach for organizations to really understand that their computer systems and networks are all part of a larger technology ecosystem and that their security depends on the security of everyone else they are connected.  This post provides guidance for service providers and merchants alike.

The first question that can come up is what is the difference between a third party and a service provider?  Technically there is no difference.  “Third party” is a term that comes from the financial audit industry which is where I first encountered it a long time ago.  Third parties are those outside organizations that provide services under contract to another organization.  Examples can include services such as office cleaning, facility management, mailroom management, lock box services, secure document destruction, human resources and a whole host of other business services.

In today’s complex corporate structures, functions such as information technology or human resources as well as whole business units can be separate legal entities and provide business services to other parts of the corporation.  While not truly outside organizations, for regulatory assessments they may also be treated as third party organizations.  I have a number of large clients that take this approach because it simplifies their audit/assessment and compliance reporting processes.  However if a merchant or service provider is going to take such an approach, it should be discussed with their acquiring bank and/or the card brands to obtain their formal approval before assessing and reporting under that approach.

What Organizations Are Service Providers?

The next question that comes up is what organizations qualify as a third party service provider under PCI?  The PCI SSC defines a service provider in the PCI DSS Glossary as:

“Business entity that is not a payment brand, directly involved in the processing, storage, or transmission of cardholder data on behalf of another entity. This also includes companies that provide services that control or could impact the security of cardholder data. Examples include managed service providers that provide managed firewalls, IDS and other services as well as hosting providers and other entities. If an entity provides a service that involves only the provision of public network access—such as a telecommunications company providing just the communication link—the entity would not be considered a service provider for that service (although they may be considered a service provider for other services).”

Under that definition any third party organization that directly processes, stores or transmits sensitive authentication data (SAD) or cardholder data (CHD) are service providers.  Examples of these organizations are transaction gateways, transaction processors and some loyalty program providers.  One notable exception is acquiring banks.  Acquiring banks are only third parties if they provide services in addition to being an acquiring bank such as card terminal management and transaction processing.

Where things get messy is third party service providers that do not directly come into contact with SAD or CHD but could come into contact with it.  While I have written two posts on this topic, there still seem to be a lot of managed service providers in denial over whether they need to be PCI compliant.  The bottom line is that if you are a service provider and you could impact the security of SAD/CHD, you must comply with the PCI standard (see PCI SSC FAQ 1092).

But that is where complaints and arguments from such peripheral service providers focus.  Most have no idea if their customers need PCI compliance unless they ask or get asked by a customer.  As a result, they tend to argue that because they do not know they do not need to comply.  Unfortunately, ignorance and/or lack of knowledge are not a valid reason to not be PCI compliant.  That is why it is incumbent for all service providers to ask every customer and prospective customer if they require PCI, HIPAA, GLBA or any other regulatory compliance so that the service provider can ensure that they can properly comply with those requirements.

Service Provider Levels Explained

Service providers, like merchants, are categorized into levels by the card brands.  The most commonly referenced service provider levels are those defined by Visa, MasterCard and Discover.

  • Level 1 service providers conduct 300,000+ transactions annually on behalf of their customers, and
  • Level 2 service providers conduct less than 300,000 transactions annually for their customers.

JCB and American Express have their own service provider level definitions, but there are very, very few service providers that only process exclusively for those brands.  If you are one of those rare service providers, I would tell you to visit the appropriate brand’s Web site and review their service provider level definitions.

Level 1 service providers must conduct a PCI assessment that results in a service provider Report On Compliance (ROC) and related Attestation Of Compliance (AOC).  That assessment can be conducted by a QSA or an ISA just as with merchant PCI ROCs.  Level 2 service providers can use either the service provider SAQ D or create a service provider ROC.

These levels also add confusion to those service providers that do not process or transmit any transactions.  As they rightfully point out, their transaction volume is zero.  I then point out to them that zero is less than 300,000, so they are considered a Level 2 service provider.  Problem and confusion solved.

The most important thing to understand about service provider levels are that if your organization is a service provider level 1 for any card brand, your organization is a level 1 for all card brands.

The next important thing to note about these assessment processes is that they must use the service provider specific SAQ D, ROC and AOC forms.  I cannot tell you the number of times I have gotten a service provider’s AOC and/or SAQ/ROC and it is not the service provider specific version.  More on this topic later.

The Global Registries

Once we get these third parties to admit they are in scope for PCI compliance, the next issue that typically comes up is in regards to the card brand global registries for service providers.  Both Visa and MasterCard have public registries of service providers on their respective Web sites.  These are strictly marketing schemes run by the respective brands and it is not mandatory that service providers be listed on either of these lists.  Since they are marketing schemes, they have no real meaning regarding any merchant organization’s PCI compliance and are not a substitute for getting an AOC from a service provider.  What they do provide is a quick way for merchants to find PCI compliant service providers providing services they wish to outsource.  As a result, a lot of service providers like to be listed on these Web sites just so that merchants will consider them.

To be listed on either of these Web sites, the service provider must have a PCI QSA (an ISA cannot be used) conduct an assessment and then the QSA must file the resulting compliant ROC and AOC with the appropriate card brand.  In the case of service providers that process or transmit SAD/CHD, they will have a relationship with a bank that must sponsor the service provider with the brands to get listed on the Web site.  For service providers that do not have a relationship with a bank because they do not process or transmit SAD/CHD, those service providers must contact the appropriate card brand who will then sponsor them.  Once approved by the brand, the service provider then pays a fee to be listed.  To stay listed on the brands Web site, the service provider must annually revalidate their compliance using a QSA, have the QSA file their compliant ROC/AOC with the brand and pay a renewal fee.

To add confusion for service providers, Visa also maintains a separate, private inventory of service providers.  This list is for Visa and their acquiring banks to reference and is not available to the public.  Visa is trying to ensure that all service providers are tracked for their annual PCI compliance even if they do not register for their public Global Registry.  So if you are a service provider and are filing a service provider SAQ D/ROC or you do not register for the public Global Registry, you will be asked to fill out information for this private Visa service provider inventory.

Service Provider AOC Issues

The most common AOC problem we encounter with service providers is that they only assess some of their services provided, not all of their services.  For third party run data centers the most common requirements assessed are requirements 9 (physical security) and 12 (policies) but no other requirements are assessed even if that same firm provides managed services such as network security, network monitoring, virtualization, server management and network management.  I will address this situation later on in the post when discussing service providers that do not have a PCI assessment.

The next most common problem is that the AOC provided to the merchant is not a service provider AOC.  The biggest problem this mistake creates is that there is no way to know what services provided to the merchant were assessed for PCI compliance.  Then you have a very embarrassing conversation for all involved as you inform the service provider that their PCI compliance is reported on the wrong form(s).  Worse is the fact that most times this results in a whole new assessment being conducted because service provider requirements were not assessed and too much time (i.e., more than 90 days) has passed since the assessment was completed.

With the introduction of v3 of the PCI DSS, the service provider AOC has had a number of changes to facilitate merchants’ evaluation of the service provider’s PCI compliance.  The first change was to list not only what services were assessed in section 2a, but what services were not assessed.  Then for each service that was assessed, the QSA/ISA is required to individually document in separate sections of 2g of the AOC which of the 12 requirements were tested for each service.

Which brings us to the third most common problem.  The AOC does not document each service individually in section 2g.  As I stated earlier, this was a change with v3, but many QSAs/ISAs did follow the instructions in the section.  In addition, the Council has not helped this situation as the AOC document is locked so adding additional sections for 2g are not possible using the Council’s form.  The Council’s advice is to copy that section and then paste additional sections as necessary to the end of the AOC.

Another situation that we occasionally run into is service providers that have gone through the PCI assessment process but refuse to provide their customers with a copy of their AOC.  Reasons for not providing the AOC vary (from the stupid to the absolutely idiotic), but it happens more often than I would like to admit.  The PCI SSC has repeatedly reinforced at their Community Meetings and in FAQs that if a service provider has been independently assessed, they must provide their service provider AOC to their customers.  If you encounter such a situation, I would recommend contacting the appropriate card brands and complaining to them about the service provider particularly if that service provider is listed on the card brands’ public Global Registry.  In most cases, such complaints will result in the brand suspending the service provider’s listing until they comply.

The last problem we encounter with AOCs is their timing and availability.  In a perfect world, every service provider would have an AOC less than a year old available for every customer.  But in the real world, a merchant conducting their assessment encounters service providers that either: (a) are also in the process of conducting their assessment, (b) had their assessment delayed and will not be able to provide an AOC by the time the merchant’s assessment is completed, or (c) does not have an AOC.

The first two conditions are timing issues and should not be a problem unless the service provider has not been compliant in the past.  As the Council has repeatedly pointed out, no organization’s PCI compliance is affected by the PCI compliance of any other organization.  In addition, the Council has also said that the PCI assessment process are not conducted to the standard of an AICPA SSAE 16 assessment which needs reliance on third party assessments.  As a result, you need to work with your QSA/ISA, bank and service providers to agree to an approach to handling these first two conditions.  My recommendation is as long as there is close to a year between assessments (give or take 30 to 60 days), I would accept whatever current AOC is available from the service provider.  For situations where there is going to be significant differences in time, I would consult with your acquiring bank or the card brands.

It is the third condition that creates the most heartburn for a merchant and the service provider.  In this situation, a merchant has no choice but to include that service provider as part of the scope of their PCI assessment (see PCI SSC FAQs 1065 and 1290).  Most of the time, this is covered under the service provider’s contract under a section regarding regulatory and legal compliance audits and assessments.  The service provider agrees to allow the merchant’s staff or authorized representatives to conduct any audits/assessments whenever required.  In very rare situations, I have encountered older contracts that do not have such audit/assessment provisions and it becomes a painful issue to get the service provider to comply with the assessment process.

However, this third condition creates a larger scope and will result in increased costs for a merchant’s PCI assessment.  Sometimes that increase can be extremely significant if the service provider is doing a substantial amount of the work that needs to be evaluated such as hosting and managing a merchant’s IT environment.  While QSAs try to minimize the occurrence of this sort of situation when scoping engagements, they still encounter it as the merchant is confused and does not understand the implication of their decision to use a non-PCI compliant service provider and their responsibilities under the PCI DSS and their Merchant Agreement.  As a result, the QSA does not get accurate answers to their scoping questions and does not find out about the service provider’s involvement until they are performing the assessment.

Non-PCI Compliant Service Providers

Before discussing this, I first need to dispel a myth.  Nowhere does the PCI DSS require a merchant to use only PCI compliant service providers (see PCI SSC FAQ 1312).  That is a requirement specified by certain card brands in their Merchant Agreements (most notably Visa and MasterCard).  Therefore not using PCI compliant service providers does not and should not result in a PCI compliance issue provided they are assessed as part of the merchant’s assessment as stated earlier.

Getting back to the topic at hand.  As an example, you have a service provider AOC and it says that section 8 is not compliant (with the latest changes in v3.2 for service providers, this is a situation that is becoming more and more common.)  As a merchant, what do you do?

This is where requirements 12.8 and 12.9 come into play as part of an organization’s vendor management process.  As part of your organization’s vendor management process you should have the following processes, at a minimum, in place.

  • Have a complete inventory of service providers including the date of their last AOC, expected receipt date of their next AOC, and whether the current AOC was PCI compliant. If not PCI compliant, it should note for each service provider those areas of non-compliance and the dates each area will be compliant.
  • For any non-PCI compliant service providers, periodic meetings need to be held with the non-compliant service provider to obtain updates on their remediation efforts. Depending on the duration and complexity of the project(s), these meetings may be conducted quarterly, monthly or even weekly.  However notes need to be kept for all of these calls and information updated as to the project(s) status.  These updates should not be suspended until the service provider is judged PCI compliant.
  • Any adverse changes in remediation efforts status should result in a review of the service provider and possibly result in seeking a new PCI compliant service provider.
  • To be judged compliant, the service provider must have a QSA/ISA submit proof (for example, a letter outlining evaluation procedures followed with a revised AOC) that they have evaluated the remediation efforts and that those efforts are complete and the PCI requirements in question have been judged PCI compliant.

The most important take away in this whole discussion regarding non-PCI compliant service providers is that it does not affect the PCI compliance of the organization using the service provider.  That said, anyone following such procedures outlines above should be prepared to provide their acquiring bank and/or card brands with proof of all of these monitoring activities.

As with all topics related to PCI compliance, this one is no different and there will be nuances to all of these discussions.  But hopefully you now understand all of the basics regarding third party service providers.

09
Mar
16

The FTC Enters The Fray

On Monday, March 7, the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) issued a news release that I am sure got a lot of notice by practice leaders of the PCI qualified security assessor companies (QSAC). On Friday, March 4, the FTC commissioners decided in a 4-0 vote to compel the following QSACs to respond to a 6(b) Special Report order.

  • Foresite MSP, LLC;
  • Freed Maxick CPAs, P.C.;
  • GuidePoint Security, LLC;
  • Mandiant;
  • NDB LLP;
  • PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP;
  • SecurityMetrics;
  • Sword and Shield Enterprise Security, Inc.; and
  • Verizon Enterprise Solutions (also known as CyberTrust)

The first thing that is notable in my mind is that some of the big players in the PCI assessment business are absent from this QSAC list. I am not sure how the FTC arrived at this QSAC list, but it would be interesting to know their methodology.

But even more interesting and concerning is the information the FTC is requesting. From their request, here is a sample of some of the questions they are asking and the information they are seeking.

  • For each year of the Applicable Time Period, state the number and percentage of clients for which You completed a Compliance Assessment and for which You declined to provide: a “Compliant” designation on the Attestation of Compliance (“AOC”); or an “In place” designation on the final Report on Compliance (“ROC”).
  • For each year of the Applicable Time Period, state the number and percentage of clients for which You completed a Compliance Assessment and for which You provided: a “Non-compliant” designation on the AOC; or a “Not in place” designation on the ROC.
  • The extent to which the Company communicates with clients in determining the adequacy of any compensating control. As part of Your response, provide all documents related to a representative Compliance Assessment that considered a compensating control, including all communications between the Company and the client or any third party such as PCI SSC, a Payment Card Network, an Issuing Bank or an Acquiring Bank.
  • The policies and procedures for completing a Report on Compliance (“ROC”), including, but not limited to a discussion of whether a draft report is created, whether that draft is shared with the client or any third party such as PCI SSC, a Payment Card Network, an Issuing Bank or an Acquiring Bank, whether the Company accepts input on the draft from the client or any third party, and whether the Company ever makes changes to the draft report based upon the client or other third parties’ input. As part of Your response, provide all documents relating to a representative Compliance Assessment in which You provided a draft of the report to the client and/or any third parties, including a copy of the draft report, any communications with the client or third parties about the draft report, and the final ROC.
  • Provide: a copy of the Compliance Assessment with the completion date closest to January 31, 2015; and a copy of a Compliance Assessment completed in 2015 that is representative of the Compliance Assessment that the Company performs. For each Compliance Assessment provided in response to this specification, the Company shall also include a copy of any contract with the client for which the Compliance Assessment was performed, all notes, test results, bidding materials, communications with the client and any other third parties, such as the PCI SSC, a Payment Card Network, an Issuing Bank or an Acquiring Bank, draft reports, the final ROC, and the AOC.
  • State whether the Company ever identifies deficiencies in a client’s network during a Compliance Assessment and gives the client the opportunity to remediate the deficiency before the Company completes its final ROC. If so, provide all documents relating to a representative Assessment where the Company gave the client an opportunity to remediate before completing the ROC, including any communications between the Company and the client or any third parties such as PCI SSC, a Payment Card Network, an Issuing Bank or an Acquiring Bank, and the final ROC and AOC.
  • State whether the Company ever identifies deficiencies in a client’s network during a Compliance Assessment and issues a final ROC before the deficiencies are remedied based on assurances that the client will remedy the deficiencies in the future. As part of Your response, provide copies of all policies and procedure related to remedying deficiencies.
  • State whether the Company has any policies or procedures relating to potential conflicts of interest, including, but not limited to, any policies that prevent the Company from providing Compliance Assessments to clients to which it has also provided another type of service, or that concern the marketing or provision of other services to clients for which You have provided a Compliance Assessment. As part of Your response, provide copies of all relevant policies and procedures.
  • State the annual number of the Company’s Compliance Assessment clients that have suffered a Breach in the year following the Company’s completion of the Assessment for each year of the Applicable Time Period. For each such client, state whether it was subsequently determined not to be PCI compliant and provide the date of the initial Compliance Assessment and any communications between the Company and client or any third parties such as PCI SSC, a Payment Card Network, an Issuing Bank or an Acquiring Bank related to the Breach.

All of these questions lead one to believe that the FTC is looking to confirm that the PCI assessment process is a sham.

It will be very interesting to see how the FTC interprets the results of this effort. However, based on these questions and how I know they will end up being answered, I would venture to say that the result will be the government getting into the data security game with regulations.

11
Dec
15

Have You Noticed?

I was on a call with our person who coordinates and does most of our quality assurance (QA) reviews for the firm. They were asked if they had any updates to provide the team regarding PCI. They took over the meeting and had us go to Part 2g of the Service Provider Attestation Of Compliance (AOC). The topic of the discussion was that we needed to make sure that we followed the Note in that section that states:

Note: One table to be completed for each service covered by this AOC. Additional copies of this section are available on the PCI SSC website.”

PCI SP AOC Part 2gThey said that in conversations with other QA people in the PCI arena, this had come up in the discussions as to how he was dealing with the requirement. They said that, until it had been pointed out, they really had not thought about it until just recently when one of our Service Provider clients needed their AOC created and their multiple services necessitated multiple 2g tables.

But that brought up the concern as to how many QSAs and their QA people have noticed this requirement, let alone are doing it correctly? Likely only a few.

However, it is important that the Service Provider AOC gets properly filled out as the service providers’ customers are relying on the AOC to fill out their own matrices based on the service provided by the service provider.

As a result, for every check box checked below in Part 2a, there needs to be a corresponding table filled out in Part 2g.

PCI SP AOC Part 2aIf you are doing service provider assessments and are not following that process expect a big black checkmark in your next PCI SSC AQM review. The question is, will it cause any QSACs to go into remediation?

Happy holidays.




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