Archive for the 'Requirement 10 – Track and monitor all access to network resources' Category

03
Nov
18

Open Source

One of the questions we received at the last PCI Dream Team session was:

“What about open source for 6.5?”

I am sure the person asking wanted to know whether open source payment solutions must comply with the PCI DSS requirements in 6.5.x?

The quick and simple answer is of course, ‘Yes’!  Why would it not?  It is source code after all, so therefore it must comply with the requirements in 6.5.x (as well as other requirements in section 6 and throughout the PCI DSS).  The PCI DSS does differentiate between different sources of application code.  For PCI compliance purposes, code is code is code, regardless of the source.

Now what does come into play is whether or not the PA-DSS validation standard applies to an application.  As PA-DSS relates to open source, I wrote about that over eight years ago, but it is still relevant today.  For the purposes of this post, I am not talking about PA-DSS validated applications.

The next question a QSA typically gets is, “Well 6.5 only applies to internet-facing payment applications, right?”

Wrong!  Any payment application needs to meet the requirements in 6.5.x whether it is internet-facing or internal facing.  Also, it does not matter whether a browser is involved or not although a significant number of the requirements in 6.5.x are related to browser-based applications.

But ensuring open source is PCI compliant goes beyond just 6.5.x.  There are other requirements that, at a minimum, must be applied as well.  Not every requirement in a section or group or requirements may apply, but some will be needed to be covered depending on how the application works.

  • Section 3 related to encryption of stored data and encryption key management;
  • Section 4 related to encryption of communications;
  • Requirements 6.1 and 6.2 for patching and vulnerability management. This can become problematic for open source because as time goes on applications can develop vulnerabilities that the developer community does not address.  This is most likely because the community moved on and your application became an orphan;
  • Requirements 6.4 for application development. Remember, just because your organization did not develop the application, if it is not PA-DSS validated, then it is your responsibility to ensure the code securely processes, stores or transmits sensitive authentication data and/or cardholder data;
  • Requirement 6.6 is also in play regardless of whether or not the application is browser-based. At a minimum, code reviews must be performed.  If the application is browser-based, then you can add in a Web application firewall (WAF) for additional security;
  • Sections 7 and 8 related to access control and user management; and
  • Section10 related to application log data.

Remember, every time a new release of your open source solution becomes available, you have to go through all of this all over again if you intend to use the new release.

So those of you thinking that you can somehow leverage open source to reduce your PCI compliance footprint, think again.  All you have done is outsourced the development of your solution.  The rest is still on you.  In the end, it is really not much of a savings.

08
Jul
18

Can I Use SSAE 18 SOC 2 Reports? Part 2

In the last post I discussed what the SOC reports are and what, in general, to look for in a SOC 2/3 report.  Now I want to take you through the more detailed analysis of the SOC reporting so that you can understand why it might not give you the result you desire and how to address that fact.

How Do I Analyze The SOC Report?

Based on the testing in the ‘Information Provided by Independent Service Auditor’ section, you are going to need to map that testing into the PCI ROC tests, if they even fit.  I typically use the Prioritized Approach spreadsheet to do this as it provides a way of documenting the requirements covered and a quick dashboard regarding what is covered.

As you reviewed the domains listed under the SOC 3 report, I am sure you thought; “What is not to like?  It looks like most of what I need for PCI is covered.”  But you would be wrong.  You will find after you map the controls from any SOC 2 report that covers all the TSP domains into the Prioritized Approach that the report will likely only cover around 20% to 25% of the PCI DSS requirements.  That is because the level of detail in the SOC tests are just not as detailed as they are in the PCI DSS.  As a result, SOC 2 reporting does not provide the kind of reliance you need to respond to all of the relevant PCI DSS requirements.

For example, while SOC will likely test that password controls are in place, you will be unable to ascertain if the organization enforces seven character or greater password lengths, password complexity, nor if they require passwords to be changed every 90 days or less.  Let alone if the special requirements for vendor password management are enforced.  It is these missing details that create the coverage problems with using the SOC reporting results.

The same can be said for change management.  When tested, the SOC report will likely call out a lot about change management, but not at the level of detail required in the PCI DSS for requirements under 6.4.  You will also find that coverage in requirements 1 and 2 regarding network and server configurations will be lacking in specificity to meet the PCI DSS testing.

Now as a QSA, you have a decision to make.  Can you accept only 20% to 25% of coverage of PCI DSS requirements as being PCI compliant?  I know I cannot.  I need much more to work with before I can get comfortable that a SOC report provides the necessary coverage for PCI compliance.

Now What?

You and your client have expended all this effort and are no closer to the result desired than when this process started.

So, what to do next?

Work with your service providers that provide you SOC reports to include testing that adds the PCI DSS details that are missing.  There will likely be a bit of push back from these service providers because adding testing to their SOC reports will cause the cost of their SOC reports to increase, sometimes significantly.  So be prepared for it.

What you need to do is to have their auditors add the necessary testing details to the description of controls and then have them test that they are in place.  Examples include:

  • Password length, complexity, change frequency and the procedures followed to perform a password reset.
  • Details surrounding privileged and general user management including provisioning, management approvals, users are implemented with least privilege and users are disabled or removed when terminated.
  • Changes tested for segregation of duties between developers and operations, segregation of test, QA and production environments, production data not used for testing, developers do not have unrestricted access to production, test data and accounts removed before applications are promoted to production, changes document impact, they are appropriately authorized, they have been tested, they have been vulnerability assessed and they document backout procedures.
  • If encryption is used to protect data, document the algorithms used, are key custodian agreements in place, are split key processes in place if performing manual key management, indicate if a hardware security module (HSM) is used and are keys changed when their crypto-periods expire or they are believed to be compromised.
  • Document the configuration standards that are followed by device classes such as firewalls, switches, servers and test that they have been implemented.
  • Document that anti-virus is implemented on systems commonly affected by viruses and malware, what the anti-virus solution is that is implemented, the anti-virus solution cannot be disabled and that the anti-virus solution is actively running on all systems it is installed.
  • Document that vulnerability scanning is performed, how often scanning is performed and that vulnerabilities are remediated.
  • Document that penetration testing is performed, how often penetration testing is performed and that findings are remediated.
  • Document that log data is collected from all devices, it is reviewed at least daily and that it contains a date/time stamp, device name, type of log entry and other relevant information.

There are a lot of other areas that could be added to the SOC report, but these are, in my opinion, the bare minimum that need to be added to make the SOC report more relevant for PCI.  I am trying to balance the amount of additional information needed versus the cost of providing it in the SOC report.

By adding all of this will it cover all of the gaps between SOC and PCI?  No.  But it should give your QSA significantly more comfort that the controls in place to meet PCI than what is currently being provided by CPAs.

04
Jul
18

Can I Use SSAE 18 SOC 2 Reports? Part 1

This is a common question that QSAs encounter from clients.  The client has an SSAE 18 Controls at a Service Organization (SOC) report from one of their service providers and they want to know if they can use it to satisfy any or all of the requirements in 12.8, 12.9 and 12.11 related to vendor management?

The biggest caveat in this discussion is that the PCI SSC does not sanction the use of any report other than a PCI Attestation Of Compliance (AOC) and/or a PCI Report On Compliance (ROC) in addition to any other PCI reports.  The Council has repeatedly stated that if a QSA chooses to rely on an SSAE 18 SOC 2 report (or any other compliance report for that matter), the QSAC and their client accepts the risk if the SSAE 18 SOC 2 does not cover what the QSA claims it covers and therefore relies upon it for fulfilling PCI ROC requirements.  As a result, most QSAs will not accept an SSAE 18 SOC 2 report (or any other non-PCI compliance reports) for any reason.

For those of us “recovering” certified public accountant (CPA) types that have conducted SSAE18 audits, we know how to read and interpret these reports.  As a result, when we are asked about SSAE 18 SOC 2 reports being relevant, our answer is that, “It depends on what the SOC 2 covers and how it was tested.”

Before we get too deep into this discussion though, we need to define the terminology surrounding this topic.  The first thing is that SSAE 18 replaced SSAE 16 as of 2017 even though nothing else appears to have changed.  The next key thing anyone needs to know about SSAE 18 is that there are three reports that can come from this reporting series: SOC 1, SOC 2 and SOC 3.

The first, SOC 1, is for financial auditors only.  It used to be called a SAS 70 years ago.  It is a report focused on financial controls that an external auditor needs to ensure that the financial numbers coming from the third party can be relied upon in their annual audit of their client.  Yes, these SOC 1 reports can cover security controls, but that is only in regard to financial systems, not necessarily the third party’s entire environment.  In addition, the control coverage is typically not as deep as required for PCI compliance.  The bottom line is that any reliance on a SOC 1 report outside of financial systems should never be assumed.

I am going to cover the SOC 3 report next because it covers all of the security domains.  The SOC 3 report (also sometimes referred to as the ‘SysTrust’ report) covers the following domains:

  • Organization and Management – The criteria relevant to how the organization is structured and the processes the organization has implemented to manage and support people within its operating units.
  • Communications – The criteria relevant to how the organization communicates its policies, processes, procedures, commitments, and requirements to authorized users and other parties of the system and the obligations of those parties and users to the effective operation of the system.
  • Risk Management and Design and Implementation of Controls – The criteria relevant to how the entity (i) identifies potential risks that would affect the entity’s ability to achieve its objectives, (ii) analyzes those risks, (iii) develops responses to those risks including the design and implementation of controls and other risk mitigating actions, and (iv) conducts ongoing monitoring of risks and the risk management process.
  • Monitoring of Controls – The criteria relevant to how the entity monitors the system, including the suitability, and design and operating effectiveness of the controls, and takes action to address deficiencies identified.
  • Logical and Physical Access Controls – The criteria relevant to how the organization restricts logical and physical access to the system, provides and removes that access, and prevents unauthorized access to meet the criteria for the principle(s) addressed in the engagement.
  • System Operations – The criteria relevant to how the organization manages the execution of system procedures and detects and mitigates processing deviations, including logical and physical security deviations, to meet the objective(s) of the principle(s) addressed in the engagement.
  • Change Management – The criteria relevant to how the organization identifies the need for changes to the system, makes the changes following a controlled change management process, and prevents unauthorized changes from being made to meet the criteria for the principle(s) addressed in the engagement.

There are also some additional considerations that are related to Confidentiality specified in the Trust Services Principals and Criteria (TSP), but those are not required to be covered in the SOC 3 report.

Finally, there is the SOC 2 report.  The SOC 2 report uses the same TSP as the SOC 3 but with a twist.  The third party can select any or all of the seven domains to be assessed.  Think of it as a “cafeteria style” assessment.  With the SOC 2, the AICPA does not require that all domains be covered (as with the SOC 3), the assessed entity can select only those domains they wish audited.  As a result, a third party could select only the ‘Organization and Management’ domain to be assessed and nothing else in their SOC 2 report.  Therefore, just because you have a SOC 2 does not mean it covers the domains necessary for your PCI assessment.  Like the SOC 3, in addition to the seven domains, the SOC 2 can also cover none, any or all of the additional considerations documented in the TSP.

Within each of these SOC reports there is a Type I and a Type II report.  A Type I report is basically worthless from a reliance perspective because no testing of the controls is ever performed.  With a Type I report, the auditor is signing off on the fact that the third party has controls defined and formally documented.  But without testing, there really is no point to this report.  Yet every now and then, I encounter a Type I report that an organization has relied upon for years.

The only report worth anything is a Type II report which tests the control environment to ensure that the controls are functioning as designed.  So, when you get that SOC 2 report, you need to make sure you have a Type II report where testing has been performed by the auditor.  Even then though, the report might not be as useful as you might think.

I Have A SOC 2 Type II Report From A Service Provider

While you want to read the whole report in detail, when I am pressed for time and cannot read it in its entirety, here is where I focus so that I can get a quick view of what I have.  Some CPA firms provide a one-page Executive Summary that gives the reader a quick overview of the report, provides the timeframe the report covers, opinion, exceptions and other useful information.  But that is not required by the AICPA so you cannot always rely on such an overview being in every report you receive.  When they are available, they can help you focus your quick review efforts even better.

The first thing to do is to read the auditor’s opinion which should be the first section of the report.  It is in the form of a letter on the auditor’s letterhead and signed by the auditing firm.  The opinion the auditor provides will be either:

  • Unqualified – no material control weaknesses or failures were identified.
  • Qualified – some material control weaknesses or failures were identified.
  • Adverse – significant control weaknesses or failures were identified.

An unqualified opinion is what all organizations desire and what most reports document.  But do not be fooled by an unqualified opinion.  There still could have been control weaknesses or failures identified but they did not rise to the level of being considered “material”.  I have seen some unqualified reports with control weaknesses that I would have considered material as their auditor, so you might still want to contact the organization to get clarification on any weaknesses identified.

A report with a qualified opinion is not the end of the world, but that will all depend upon what control weaknesses or failures created the qualification.  Someone misusing their access can be minor compared to not performing backups of servers for months.  As a result, you need to read each control weakness to determine the criticality of the control failure as well as review management’s responses to how they addressed or will address the failure.  Again, you may find yourself contacting the organization to clarify weaknesses documented.

In my experience, reports with an adverse opinion never get issued to the public.  Management sees all of the control failures and weaknesses and then embarks on the long arduous task of cleaning up their control environment.

The next section to look at is the one labeled ‘Information Provided by Independent Service Auditor’ or similar.  This is the section that will contain the testing results and will define which of the domains were covered as well as the timeframe the report covers.  Most organizations issue SOC reports annually, so you always want to make sure that you have the most current report.  If the coverage end date is getting within three months of a year old or more, you should contact the third party and ask them when the next report will be issued.  They should inform you that the new report is in progress and give you an estimated date the report will be issued.  If they do not give you a succinct answer, I would be concerned.

You need to go through this section looking at a couple of things.  The first is to determine which of the domains were covered.  While documenting those domains, you also need to review the testing that was performed and at what level of detail those tests were conducted.  For example, it is not unusual to see tests for change control cover five random changes but not test those changes for having appropriate documentation, backout instructions and testing, only that the changes were approved.  At some point you will need to read this section carefully to determine what, if anything, will cover the testing required by the PCI DSS.  But a quick perusal will usually give you an idea of what you are likely going to get out of the SOC 2 for PCI compliance, if you are going to get anything at all.

This leads to the next section of the report you should read.  The last section of all SOC reports is usually titled ‘Supplemental Information Provided By [Organization Name]’.  This section contains information that was provided by the entity being audited but is not covered by the auditor’s opinion.  There can be all sorts of information presented here but the important point to remember is that the auditor did not test or assess the accuracy of that information.  So, you need to take any information provided in this section with a bit of skepticism.

It is in the Supplemental Information section that you want to look for a sub-section titled ‘Management’s Response to Control Exceptions’ or similar.  Even when an organization has an unqualified opinion, there can still be items listed in this section.  If there are items listed, you want to carefully read what those items were and how management addressed or corrected the condition.  If you find any control issues and responses that concern you, you should contact the entity and get those discussed so that you are comfortable with the situation.  If you cannot get comfortable with the situation, then you may want to consider additional controls at your end to compensate for the control weakness with the third party.

In the next postpost I will take you through a more thorough review of the SOC report.

17
Mar
18

Can Every Requirement Be Met With A Compensating Control?

“In theory, theory works.” – Jeff Hall

Some years back, the PCI SSC came out at the Community Meeting and stated that every PCI DSS requirement could be addressed by a compensating control worksheet (CCW).  A rather broad statement but it started a bunch of us in the PCI community thinking, “Is that really the case?”

Before reading this post, I highly recommend reading my post on writing CCWs so that you can fully appreciate why not every requirement can be met by a CCW.

That said, it turns out that there are a lot of requirements where there is no way to develop a CCW.  Here are just a few examples.

1.1.2 – Network Diagram(s) and 1.1.3 – Data Flow Diagram(s)

What would be the mitigating controls here?  There are none because diagrams are diagrams.  There is nothing you can do to compensate for these missing other than provide them.

1.1.6 – Firewall Rules

As with 1.1.2 and 1.1.3, what could possibly serve as a mitigating control?  If the firewall rules are not able to be reviewed, there is nothing you can rely upon to go above and beyond the control.

I have had people suggest that the QSA could rely on Nmap and vulnerability scans of the firewalls.  But that does not necessarily confirm all of the ports/services that are configured for the firewall nor does it necessarily confirm that the devices using those ports are the same ones that are in scope for PCI compliance.

1.2.3 – Wireless Networking

QSAs have repeatedly been told that this requirement can never be marked as ‘Not Applicable’.  The QSA is required to respond to how they confirmed at wireless was either in or out of scope.  But can you create a CCW for these requirements?

The controls that you need to assess to meet these requirements are the same controls you have to use in the CCW for mitigation.  So, if you have to document and evaluate the controls regardless, why would you bother to write a CCW?  You would not.  You would document and meet the requirements and move on.

3.2 – No Storage of SAD

This is the requirement that started the whole CCW debate.  When the PCI DSS was originally issued, QSAs were trained that this requirement could NEVER, EVER have a compensating control.  But that changed when the Council issued their proclamation a few years back.  But is that really the case?

Remember, a CCW must go above and beyond the intent of the original requirement.  3.2 also states in a note that SAD cannot be stored even if encrypted.  Encryption would be the only mitigating control available to an organization that wants to store SAD.  So what replaces encryption if that cannot be used?  Tokenization by a third party would be an option, but if you go that route, you are not storing the SAD, so the discussion becomes moot.

8.3 – Multifactor Authentication

Some form of multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for non-console administrative access to cardholder data environment (CDE) systems and remote access to an in-scope network.  Since the Council has clearly defined MFA and also knocked down multiple logons with different credentials, what is left?  In the end, there is no way around meeting this requirement other than doing what the requirement states.

10.1 – 10.3 and 10.6 – Log Data

Here is another example of where there really is no way to write a CCW.  You are either gathering log data (centrally or on individual systems) or you are not.  You are either reviewing the log data daily or you are not.  Then there is the requirement of sending log data from internet facing devices to an internal device.  No matter how creative you think you are, there are no controls that will mitigate this situation and also go above and beyond.

As I said at the beginning of this post, these are just some of the examples where a CCW is just not going to make it.  So, the next time you think about meeting a PCI DSS requirement by using a CCW, make sure you understand the requirement and that there are controls that will mitigate the risk and go above and beyond the original intent of the requirement.  You will save yourself and your QSA a lot of time and consternation.

03
Jul
16

The Council Issues A New Information Supplement

Back in May, the PCI SSC issued a new information supplement titled ‘Effective Daily Log Monitoring’.  It probably slipped under most people’s radar because of the issuing of v3.2 of the PCI DSS.  And for my friend, Anton Chuvakin, this will be on his reading list immediately if he has not read it already because his book, ‘Logging and Log Management: The Authoritative Guide to Understanding the Concepts Surrounding Logging and Log Management’, is listed in the information supplement’s bibliography and from the way this supplement reads, figured prominently in its content.

First some overall impressions.  Unlike a lot of other information supplements, this one actually clarifies and provides a significant amount of knowledge and great advice.  Every organization that needs to meet PCI compliance should read it.  But more importantly, any organization that does not fully understand the collection and analysis of log data should read it to get a foundation in these practices.

One of the best recommendations comes in section 5.2 in the supplement which instructs organizations to develop a baseline from log data.  This is the biggest problem when an organization gets serious about analyzing log data, they fail to baseline the exceptions.  I cannot tell you the number of times that I have discussed logging with the personnel responsible for monitoring for alerts and they cannot tell you what is “normal” activity versus “abnormal” activity.  As a result, they either: (1) chase every alert as though they are an attack (they are not), or (2) ignore alerts because they assume they are “normal” activity (they are not).  The result in case #1 is that they cause burn out in the organization and, of course, in case #2 the organization is likely getting attacked and compromised.

I cannot understate the importance of this activity both in getting a log monitoring project going but also as something that needs to also be an ongoing activity.  No organization’s IT environment is static, so it is important to continuously baseline the log data and adjust for changes.  This can be done by adding an item on change control tickets to evaluate the impact on log data or re-baselining every quarter.  The bottom line is that baselining is not something done once, the baseline must be periodically updated.

The most glaring omission in this document is a reference on page 27 to Appendix B that promises to provide readers with a list of “sample tools” for normalizing log data.  But guess what?  There is no Appendix B.  Hopefully the Council will issue a revision to this document and add Appendix B to that future revision.

If I had to ding this information supplement for anything it is the downplaying of the need to have one or more tools to collect and analyze the log data.  The Council obviously has to walk a fine line on this, but let us be honest.  Anyone that believes that log monitoring and analysis can be done without one or more commercial tools is kidding themselves.  Yes, a person can put up a centralized log collection server and the parse that collection of data with tools such as Grep, Perl or Python.  Again, let us be honest, no one has the time to write all of the necessary scripts or search patterns to find all of the conditions you need to find.

It used to be that there were open source tools such as Splunk and similar available for log gathering and analysis.  However, those days disappeared a number of years back and only commercial versions are available.  So everyone needs to be prepared to spend a certain amount of money to get a toolset that will provide the information gathering and analysis toolsets necessary.

I also fault this document for focusing too much on log information normalization.  This is exactly why organizations need to invest in a commercial tool.  This was the big complaint with using open source tools.  People found that they got basic functionality, but then had to essentially conduct a full-fledged system development effort to get the analysis and alerting done.  This was the big selling point with commercial tools such as LogRythms and ArcSight that came the basics as well as a whole host of analysis templates both free and for purchase.

Another ding I have is the minimal number of requirements that the information supplement identifies as being satisfied by log monitoring and alerting.  I can find at least 15 instances where requirements can be met by monitoring and alerting, not just the eight that are identified in the supplement.

Even with these concerns and shortcomings, this is possibly one of the better information supplements issued by the Council and is a must read by everyone.

To get your own copy of the information supplement, go to the PCI SSC Document Library, select ‘Guidance Documents’ and scroll down to the ‘Logging’ banner.

18
Jun
16

iFrame Hack Reported

This week brought news of an inline frame (iFrame) payment solution that was hacked in the UK.  For all of you merchants that use an iFrame solution because you were told it reduced your PCI scope, you may want to rethink your security strategy.  For all of you hosting companies that offer these iFrame solutions because of the scope reduction value, you too may want to rethink your security strategy as well.

For those of us that are not Web developers, an iFrame is:

“An HTML document embedded inside another HTML document on a website. The iFrame HTML element is often used to insert content from another source, such as an payment page or advertisement, into a merchant’s Web page.”

For merchants using an iFrame for handling payments, the PCI DSS rules that the iFrame makes the merchant’s Web site out of scope because the iFrame is managed by the payment provider, not the merchant.  Thus merchants using an iFrame or a redirect are allowed to fill out an SAQ A.  However, because of increased risks to merchant Web sites using iFrames and redirects, the Council has updated SAQ A in response to those risks.

But there has always been a risk that iFrames and redirects could be manipulated.  The attack used in the article was fairly sophisticated in that it required a lot of knowledge about how that particular iFrame worked and then used a man in the middle (MITM) approach to intercept the invocation of the payment processor’s iFrame and insert their own iFrame.  Not easy, but definitely effective.

The easier approach is an attacker changes the script/executable that invokes the iFrame/redirect to invoke a malicious iFrame/redirect.  A merchant would be alerted to such a change if critical file monitoring were required, but SAQ A does not require critical file monitoring.

This is why a lot of QSAs have told their clients that only fools believe that the requirements in SAQ A will keep their Web sites secure.  At a minimum, merchants using iFrame/redirect solutions should have critical file monitoring and logging implemented as well as conducting quarterly vulnerability scanning so that they can secure their Web sites as well as alert on any changes or any suspicious activity on their Web sites.

09
Dec
14

Significant Change And Periodic

UPDATED: Changed comments on requirement 10.6.2 to reflect the correct interpretation of that requirement.

No words or phrases in the PCI standards elicit more comments and questions than “significant change”, “periodic” and “periodically”.

So what do these mean?  Whatever you want to define them to mean as it is up to each organization to come up with formal definitions.  Those definitions should be based on your organization’s risk assessment.

Here are some suggestions as to appropriate definitions.

Significant Change

Significant changes are those changes that could impact or affect the security of your cardholder data environment (CDE).  Examples of significant changes are:

  • Changing devices such as firewalls, routers, switches and servers. Going from Cisco to Checkpoint firewalls for example is typically understood as a significant change.  However, people always question this concept particularly when going from a Cisco ASA 5505 firewall to an ASA 5520 or moving a virtual machine from one cluster to another.  The problem is that these moves can potentially introduce new vulnerabilities, network paths or even errors that would go unknown until the next vulnerability scan and penetration test.  And your luck would be that those tests are months away, not just a few days.
  • Changes to payment applications. This should be obvious, but I cannot tell you how many people argue the point on changes to applications.  Yet, application changes are possibly the biggest changes that can affect security.  Not only should applications be vulnerability scanned and penetration tested before being put into production, but code review and/or automated code scanning should be performed as well.  If any vulnerabilities are found, they must be corrected or mitigated before the application goes into production.
  • Upgrades or changes in operating systems. Upgrades and changes in operating systems should also be obvious as significant changes.  However, I have run into network and system administrators that want to split hairs over the impact of OS changes.  In my opinion, going from one version of an OS to another is just as significant as changing OSes.
  • Patching of operating systems or applications. While I do not think that patching necessarily results in a significant change, there are some patches such as updates to critical services such as .NET or the IP stack that should be considered significant.  If you are properly working through requirement 6.1 (6.2 in PCI DSS v2) for patch management, you should take this into consideration and indicate if vulnerability scanning and penetration testing are required after any particular patch cycle because of the nature of any of the patches being applied.
  • Network changes. Any time you change the network you should consider that a significant change regardless of how “minor” the change might appear.  Networks can be like puzzles and the movement of devices or wires can result in unintended paths being opened as a result.

I have a lot of clients that have an indicator in their change management system or enter “Significant Change” in the change comments for flagging significant changes.  That way they can try and coordinate significant changes with their scheduled vulnerability scanning and penetration testing.  It does not always work out, but they are trying to make an attempt at minimizing the number of special scans and tests that are performed.  But such an approach also has a side benefit when it comes time to do their PCI assessment as they can call up all significant changes and those can be tied to the vulnerability scans and penetration tests.

I would see this list as the bare minimum of significant changes.  As I stated earlier, it is up to your organization to develop your own definition of what constitutes a significant change.

Periodic and Periodically

Branden Williams was on a Podcast shortly after the PCI DSS v3 was released and made a comment that he felt that the number of occurrences for the words “periodic” or “periodically” were higher in the new version of the PCI DSS than in the previous version.  That got me thinking so I went and checked it out.  Based on my analysis, these words occur a total of 20 times in the PCI DSS v3 with 17 of those occurrences in the requirements/tests.  That is a 150% total increase over v2 and an increase of 113% in the requirements/tests.

First off, just to shatter some people’s perception of the word, “periodic” does not equate to “annual”.  Yes, there may be instances where an activity can occur annually and still meet PCI DSS compliance.  But that is likely a rare occurrence for all but the smallest organizations and is definitely not how the Council has defined it.

The Council uses the words “periodic” and “periodically” to reflect that an organization should be following the results of their risk assessment to determine how often or “periodically” they should perform a certain activity.  For some organizations, that might happen to work out to be annually.  But for most organizations it will work out to be something more often than annually.

So what requirements specific a periodic time period?  Here are some of the more notable occurrences.

  • 5.1.2 For systems considered to be not commonly affected by malicious software, perform periodic evaluations to identify and evaluate evolving malware threats in order to confirm whether such systems continue to not require anti-virus software.Typically this would be done annually, but forensic analysis of breaches has indicated that it needs to be done more often, particularly with Linux and other Unix derivatives. Based on threats semi-annual or even quarterly reviews may be needed for systems you believe to not warrant an anti-virus solution.
  • 5.2 Ensure that all anti-virus mechanisms are maintained as follows: Are kept current, Perform periodic scans, Generate audit logs which are retained per PCI DSS Requirement 10.7.Periodic scanning is always an issue with servers but, surprisingly, even more so with workstations. In my opinion, at a minimum, scans for viruses and malware should be done at least weekly.  This might need to be done daily if the systems are particularly at risk such as in call centers where the workstations my go to the Internet to be able to access competitor sales offerings.
  • 8.2.4.b Additional testing procedure for service providers: Review internal processes and customer/user documentation to verify that: Non-consumer user passwords are required to change periodically; and Non-consumer users are given guidance as to when, and under what circumstances, passwords must change.This requirement pairs with 8.6.2 which requires service providers with remote access to customers’ systems to not use the same credentials for each customer. A number of recent breaches have pointed out the issue such a practice can lead.  Not only are different credentials needed by the password for those credentials needs to change periodically, typically every 90 days.  This will likely spur the sales of enterprise credential vaults and similar solutions in the service provider ranks.But it is not just service provider’s credentials; it is also their customers’ credentials.  Service providers need to advise their customers to change their passwords periodically as well.  And that should also be at 90 day intervals at a minimum.
  • 9.7 Obtain and examine the policy for controlling storage and maintenance of all media and verify that the policy requires periodic media inventories.For this requirement, the PCI DSS already provides a required timeframe of at least annually.
  • 9.8 Examine the periodic media destruction policy and verify that it covers all media and defines requirements for the following:Periodic here typically means quarterly or even monthly if you have the volume of media to be destroyed. The key though is to secure the media until it is destroyed.
  • 9.9 Examine documented policies and procedures to verify they include: Maintaining a list of devices, Periodically inspecting devices to look for tampering or substitution, Training personnel to be aware of suspicious behavior and to report tampering or substitution of devices.Here periodic means at least daily, if not more often. I have clients that examine their points of interaction (POI) at every management shift change which works out to three or four times a day.  Given the POI is becoming the primary target of attacks, this will only become more important as time goes on given the current paradigm.
  • 9.9.2 Periodically inspect device surfaces to detect tampering (for example, addition of card skimmers to devices), or substitution (for example, by checking the serial number or other device characteristics to verify it has not been swapped with a fraudulent device).Again, periodic means at least daily, if not more often. I have clients that examine their points of interaction (POI) at every management shift change which works out to three or four times a day.  Given the POI is becoming the primary target of attacks, this will only become more important as time goes on given the current paradigm.
  • 10.6.2 Review logs of all other system components periodically based on the organization’s policies and risk management strategy, as determined by the organization’s annual risk assessment.This requirement allows systems to be ranked using an organization’s risk assessment to drive how often log data from systems have to be reviewed.  While systems that directly process, store or transmitcardholder data (CHD) must have their log data reviewed at least daily, other systems that are in-scope can have their log data reviewed less often based on the risk they present to the CDE systems.  Based on assessing the risk to these “connected to” systems, you might be able to justify weekly or even monthly review of log data. I doubt this will have a significant impact because most organizations have implemented internal or outsourced system information and event management (SIEM) solutions and are monitoring all in-scope systems in near real time.  But for those few organizations that are struggling with log reviews without a SIEM, this will afford them a bit of breathing space.
  • 12.10.4 Verify through observation, review of policies, and interviews of responsible personnel that staff with responsibilities for security breach response are periodically trained.It amazes me the number of organizations that claim to not have had an incident in the last year, even a virus or malware outbreak. Either they were totally dealt with by their anti-virus solution (hard to believe) or I am not talking to thepeople that deal with these issues (probably more likely).  As a result, testing (which can satisfy this training requirement) is only being done annually just like business continuity plan testing.Given the ever increasing amount of threats, this sort of training needs to be done more often than just annually.  Organizations should be at least testing their incident response plan on a quarterly basis so that people keep their skills up as well we just exercising the plan and finding any gaps or processes that need adjustment.

Hopefully we are now all on the same page with these terms.

08
Aug
14

Requirement 10.6.2 Clarification

As a refresher, requirement 10.6.2 states:

“Review logs of all other system components periodically based on the organization’s policies and risk management strategy, as determined by the organization’s annual risk assessment.”

The argument in PCI circles is the definition of “all other systems”.  Some of us believed that it meant systems other than those in-scope.  Other people believed that it had to refer to only in-scope systems such as a user workstation.  As a result, I asked the PCI SSC to clarify this requirement and this is the response I got back.

“In PCI DSS v2.0, logs for all in-scope systems were required to be reviewed daily. However it was recognized that for larger or more complex environments, there could be lower risk systems that were in scope for PCI DSS that could warrant less frequent log reviews. As such, PCI DSS v3.0 defines a number of events and system types that require daily log reviews, and allows the organization to determine the log review frequency for all other in-scope events and systems that do not fall into those categories.

For some environments, such as those designed specifically for the purposes of PCI DSS, then it is possible that all in-scope systems fall under the system categories defined in Requirement 10.6.1, meaning that daily log reviews are required for all in-scope systems. In other environments, there may be many different types of system that are considered in-scope, but which are not critical systems and neither store, process or transmit CHD nor provide security services to the CDE. Some possible examples could be stock- control or inventory-control systems, print servers (assuming there is no printing of CHD) or certain types of workstations. For these events or systems, the entity, as part of its annual risk assessment process, is expected to define the frequency for reviews based on the risk to its specific environment.

The intent of this update is not to apply PCI DSS Requirements to out-of-scope systems. We realize that the current wording is causing confusion and will address this in the next revision.”

So there we have it.  Not the first time my interpretation was wrong.  The requirement means in-scope systems that, from an assessment of risk, are at less of a risk of compromise can reduce the frequency of log reviews.

But that means you need to have an accurate risk assessment to support your argument.  So those of you that have not explicitly assessed the risk of your category 2 systems will have to break them out to support a reduced log review frequency.

01
Aug
14

The Dilemma Of PCI Scoping – Part 2

In Part 1 I discussed how isolation is an answer, but probably not a viable answer for almost all but the most security conscientious of organizations such as the military, defense contractors or those that can afford that sort of painstaking luxury.  So unless you consider everything in scope for PCI compliance, is there a viable way to reduce scope?

Before we get to that though, we need a quick discussion on risk management as the solution is all predicated on the identification and management of risk.  Because if you cannot do an appropriate risk assessment, then the only choice you really have is to consider everything in scope I know the vast majority of you do not like that approach.

Assessing Risk

In order for my proposed solution to have a chance at working properly, an organization needs to understand its risks, what risks will be accepted and managed and what it will take mitigate the residual risks.  Doing a risk assessment is the way to do that, but most organizations avoid such an assessment for a variety of reasons.  The most common reasons I have heard are:

  • The risk assessment framework is too complex,
  • We tried this once before and never got any meaningful results,
  • We were never able to agree on the risks and their scores, or my personal favorite,
  • This spreadsheet is our risk assessment (it is not, but see Tom Benhave’s blog post on the topic as he does a much better job than I could explaining this topic).

The reason why risk is such a tough topic is that everyone has their own perspective on risk; good, bad or otherwise.  There are numerous articles and presentations on this phenomena but my favorite one is from Lance Spitzner of SANS who wrapped his around security awareness training and discusses risk at the start of his presentation describing why people are such poor judges of risk.  He uses various statistics regarding events that can happen in people’s lives to illustrate this fact.  My personal favorite example of just such a statistic is that people have a greater chance of dating a supermodel than of winning the PowerBall lottery.  Granted, both have tremendous odds, but the odds of dating a supermodel are still significantly less than the odds of winning the PowerBall.

The bottom line is that, without a decent risk assessment, an organization has no way to know the amount of risk the organization is willing to accept and how they will manage that risk.  The Council has repeatedly said that PCI compliance is supposed to consider risk and take a “risk-based” approach.  However, the problem is that we each have our own opinion of risk and what risks we are willing to take on.  But at the end of the day, no matter what an organization does, there is going to be risk.  The question is, “Are these risks my organization willing to take on?”  That question can only be answered by a risk assessment and an understanding of how risks can be managed and mitigated.

How your organization chooses which risks it is will to accept and how to manage those remaining risks are up to your organization to decide.  This is why the PCI DSS and all other security frameworks require an annual risk assessment to be performed.  The risk assessment process provides a framework for an organization to document their risks, understand those risks (size, frequency of occurrence, costs, etc.), how the risks can be managed or mitigated, then agree to what risks they will take on and how they will manage and/or mitigate those risks.

From here on we will assume that the organization has a valid risk assessment and that they are willing to take on the risks presented by the example I will discuss.

Managing Risk

Today’s integrated and connected world just does not lend itself to an isolationist approach due to the volume of information involved, business efficiencies lost and/or the operational costs such an approach incurs.  As a result, organizations need to take a hybrid approach of heavily protecting some components and taking on and managing the risks inherent to such an approach.

When it comes to the IT side of risk management and mitigation, most organizations rely on some form of near real time monitoring through collected system/event log data and other sources to monitor their environment(s).  Unfortunately, where this approach comes up short is that there are too many alerts to follow up and so alerts go unaddressed.  Almost every QSA can tell you about a discussion with operations personnel where the statement, “Oh, that’s a false positive alert, so I don’t have to worry about it” has been made.

This is the first problem you must address and make sure that this attitude never creeps back into your people that monitor alerts.  Anyone in operations that “knows” an alert is a false positive needs either: (1) re-education, or (2) your organization needs to seriously re-tune your alerting mechanism(s).  All you have to do is read the Target and Neiman Marcus press reports if you need examples of how bad things can get if your personnel are blowing off alerts because they believe they are not accurate.

In my experience, a lot of these problems are the result of bad or incomplete implementations of these systems.  Unfortunately, there are a lot of people out there that think that these solutions are more like a Ronco Rotisserie Oven where, as they famously say in the ads, “you can set it and forget it.”  Yes these solutions may be “appliances”, but that is where the comparison ends.

System incident and event management (SIEM) systems require fairly constant tuning and tweaking, beyond their own software and signature updates, to minimize false positive alerts in response to the changes to an organization’s networks and systems.  Yet time and again, I encounter monitoring and alerting systems that were put in place years ago (typically to meet PCI compliance) and have not been adjusted/changed since then while all around them changes have been occurring that affect their operation.

When interviewing the people responsible for these systems I hear statements such as, “Yeah, that alert started to appear when we implemented [name of change].  We were told to just ignore it.”  When asked why they have not tuned it out of the SIEM, you get either they do not have time, they do not know how, they do not have the rights to do that or, my personal favorite, the head of security or the security committee will not let us change that.

The reason this issue does not get addressed is that it has no visibility since alerts are tucked into the various monitoring tools.  So, the best way to address this situation is to give it visibility by automatically feeding all alerts into an organization’s help desk system.  This gives all alerts immediate visibility by putting them in an automated tracking and escalation process.  It also allows for triage and investigation activities to be documented and, based on the results of those triage and investigation activities, having the alert assigned to the right people/groups to address the alerts.

“Whoa, let’s not get crazy here,” I am sure some of you are YELLING at the screen.  There is no doubt this is a very brave step to take because this will potentially uncover something you probably did not want to advertise given the state of your existing alerting.  But that is typically only be a short term problem.  Unfortunately, it may be the only way to get the underlying problem of tuning and tweaking of the alerting systems completed and constantly addressed.

But taking such a step is not entirely a bad thing, at least in the long run.  A side benefit of doing such a thing is that it will focus an organization on triage activities for classifying the urgency of the alerts.  Not all alerts need immediate action, but a lot of them can require immediate investigation and then can be put on a back burner.  It will also give visibility to the number of alerts being dealt with on a daily basis after triage.  That typically results in identifying and justify why more staff are required to deal with the onslaught of alerts that need to be researched.

Another change that organizations should make is adding a box into their change control form that indicates what the impact of a change will have on the SIEM environment.  At least these three basic questions need to be answered in regards to SIEM or other monitoring systems.

  • Do new alerts need to be added and, if so, what do they need to monitor and what are the alerting thresholds?
  • Do existing alerts need to be modified and, if so, what modifications are needed?
  • Are there alerts that are no longer needed?

If you address these areas, you should have monitoring and alerting taken care of with a built in feedback loop to keep it that way.

In Part 3, I am going to wrap up my discussion on PCI scoping with a discussion of Category 2 and 3 systems.

26
Apr
14

Why SAQ A-EP Makes Sense

A colleague of mine attended the PCI SSC QSA Update session at the ETA convention a couple of weeks back.  One of the big discussion items was how the Council is being pilloried over SAQ A-EP.  This SAQ was developed to address the recommendations that were documented in the information supplement titled ‘PCI DSS E-commerce Guidelines’ that was published in January 2013.  Specifically, SAQ A-EP addresses the ecommerce sites that do redirects to a processor’s site that does the actual payment processing.

Based on the comments I have seen online and made in personal conversations, you would think that SAQ A-EP was heresy or a bad joke.  All of these derogatory comments are being driven by merchants that were sold a bill of goods by slick, non-PCI informed, sales people pushing redirected ecommerce solutions by claiming that it put the merchant entirely out of scope.  This was not the case and never was the case, particularly after the issuance of the information supplement.  However, we still encounter outsourcing vendors that continue to claim a redirect approach puts the merchant entirely out of scope.

To understand the rationale of SAQ A-EP we need to understand the risk surrounding these redirect solutions.  The risk is that an attacker modifies the redirect on the merchant’s server to now point to their own payment page, collects the customer’s cardholder data (CHD) on the attacker’s page and then, optionally, passes the customer on to the original payment page at the processor so the customer and merchant are none the wiser.

Under the PCI DSS and card brands’ security programs, redirect systems are still in-scope for PCI compliance because they are a key control in the payment process even though the merchant’s server issuing the redirect does not come into direct contact with CHD.

With all of that said, SAQ A-EP is not a full SAQ D, but it is not as short and simple as SAQ A either.  There are a lot of requirements to be met with SAQ A-EP which is why merchants are up in arms.  However, if you understand the aforementioned risk, you should understand why the requirements that have to be complied with in SAQ A-EP are there.

The requirement 1 requirements are all there to ensure that there is a firewall protecting the server that does the redirect.  This is Security 101 and I would doubt that any merchant would not have a firewall protecting all of their Internet facing servers.  Routers have always been optional and if the merchant does not have control of those devices, then they would not be included here.

Requirement 2 is all about making sure that all devices in the cardholder data environment (CDE) are properly configured and security hardened.  Again, this is Security 101 stuff.  If a merchant is not doing this for Internet facing devices, they are just begging to be attacked and compromised.

The requirements called out in SAQ A-EP for requirement 3 are there to confirm that the merchant is not storing cardholder data (CHD) or sensitive authentication data (SAD).  A merchant using a redirect should be marking these as Not Applicable (NA) and documenting that they do not store CHD in their system(s) because they use a redirect that processes and transmits CHD directly between their processor and their customer.  Any merchant that answers these requirements any other way should not be using SAQ A-EP.  All of that said, merchants need to have proof that they examined logs, trace files, history files, databases, etc. and did not find any CHD or SAD in those files.

Requirement 4 is provided to ensure that secure communications are used.  I would recommend documenting the SSL/TLS certificate information for your processor for the requirements in 4.1.  But do not pass over requirement 4.2.  A lot of ecommerce only merchants have call centers or take telephone calls and do order entry into the same Web site used by their customers.  As a result, merchants need to make sure that email, instant messaging, etc. are never used for communicating CHD/SAD.

Requirement 10 is important for any forensic research should the redirect be manipulated so that it can be determined when that event occurred so that the scope of any compromise can be determined.

While one would think that the vulnerability scanning and penetration testing requirements in requirement 11 would be thought of Security 101 and self-explanatory, you would be surprised at how many merchants argue about that fact.  Again, the driver of these redirect solutions was cost reduction and vulnerability scanning and penetration testing incur costs, sometimes significant costs depending on the number of servers, firewalls, load balancers, switches, etc. involved.  If you do not do vulnerability scanning and penetration testing as required, how do you know that the redirect system(s) are properly secured and patched?

However, the key requirement that cannot be missed is requirement 11.5 regarding critical file monitoring.  That is because the whole security of the redirect environment is pinned on detecting any modification of the redirect URL.  All of the other requirements in SAQ A-EP are there to minimize the risk of compromising the redirect.  11.5 is there to ensure that, if the other controls fail, at least the merchant would be alerted to the fact that the redirect had been changed.  If a modification to the redirect cannot be reliably detected by the critical file monitoring solution, then the security of the redirect cannot be assured.

The remaining requirements for 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 12 are all Security 101 items.  If you are not following these requirements as part of best practices for security and IT operations in general, then you need to consider what exactly you are doing.

Hopefully everyone now understands SAQ A-EP and why it is not as simple as that slick sales person implied.




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